Commercial Air Transport (CAT) aircraft
1. Commercial Air Transport (CAT) aircraft make use of instruments to assist navigation in various ways. (EFIS panel description not required)
a) Describe a typical CAT aircraft navigation instrument display and principle of operation, relating this to any ground-based components.
b) Explain the differences between the ground and flight components of the instrument.
c) List 3 of the navigation instruments displayed by CAT aircraft.
2. CAT aircraft make use of weather radar.
a) Explain the requirement for weather radar in a CAT environment.
b) Explain the weather radar display, relating relevant characteristics of the display (eg range, colours etc.) to the flight path of the aircraft and atmospheric conditions.
3. In CAT aircraft there are differences between typical passenger, flight and cabin crew oxygen systems.
a) Explain these differences with reference to roles, responsibilities and needs.
b) Oxygen can be provided to passengers in more than one way.Briefly describe two types of passenger oxygen systems.
c) Explain any differences between CAT aircraft and single or dual seat military aircraft crew oxygen provision.
4. CAT aircraft are designed and certified to operate within a range of climactic conditions.
a) What are the standard reference parameters for atmospheric conditions?
b) Explain the conditions that can lead to ice formation on an aircraft on the ground and in flight, how it may be detected and the possible consequences in these cases.
c) Describe a CAT aircraft airframe anti-icing system in the cruise or descent.
d) Describe a CAT aircraft de-icing system in the cruise or descent.
e) There are many precautions to be taken when de-icing aircraft on the ground. Explain the acronyms/terms HOT, TYPE 1 FLUID, OAT, PRECIPITATION, ICAO 9640, RE-HYDRATION, ANTI-ICING CODE, FREEZING POINT BUFFER, AOM and their relevance to de-icing procedures.
5. CAT aircraft maintenance operations on the environmental control, oxygen, fuel and related protection systems are carried out at regular intervals. These are explained in various documents and regulatory procedures, including the Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM). Referring to a suitable CAT aircraft AMM (state the aircraft, ATA codes etc.) and other documents as required :
a) What are the safety precautions to be observed when maintaining an aircraft pneumatic supply system?
b) What are the safety precautions to be observed when maintaining oxygen systems?
c) What are the safety precautions to be observed when maintaining fuel systems?
1. Use diagrams to explain the function and operation of a basic CAT aircraft pitot-static system down to component level.
a) Explain the basic operation of the airspeed indicator and at least 2 of the errors that may affect its readings.
b) Explain the basic operation of the vertical speed indicator.
c) Explain the consequences, in terms of instrument readings, of a blocked static source during the flight phases of take-off, climb, cruise and descent.
2. Demonstrate an understanding of the physical principles which govern the operation of air cycle and vapour cycle cooling systems and their associated components
a) Explain the operating principles of an air cycle cooling pack with examples of typical air temperatures
b) Explain the operating principles of an ejector pump.
3. Use diagrams to explain the function and operation of a CAT aircraft pressurisation system down to component level
a) Provide a profile ‘plot’ of a typical CAT aircraft flight pressurisation cycle, including relevant indications of , and with an explanation of each, the following terms:
i. Aircraft altitude and rate of climb
ii. Cabin altitude and rate of climb
iii. Maximum cabin altitude.
b) Describe the operation of the cabin pressure outflow valve
c) What is the meaning of the term ‘maximum cabin pressure differential’ (?P) and give at least one example, citing the aircraft, of a typical value for ?P.
4. The compass onboard an aircraft may be difficult to read at times.
a) What instrument is used normally to confirm heading?
b) Compare the operation of this instrument, its possible power supplies, and its limitations in a light aircraft to the CAT aircraft equivalent.
5. CAT aircraft retain some basic instrumentation for possible use in an emergency.
a) List these, indicating for each one where they are found on the flight deck and explain their general principles of operation.
b) One of these instruments requires regular re-calibration in a ground-based process that results in completion of a ‘deviation card’. Which instrument is this, what is the name of the process and list 3 occasions when the process is required to be completed?
6. CAT aircraft systems include warnings on the flight deck to assist safe operation of these systems, particularly in flight. Heat, voltage, current, flow and pressure outside design limitations in some systems may result in warnings. A diagnosis process will then need to be followed, perhaps resulting in a tech.log entry. Choose any three warnings that may be displayed for an aircraft (specify) and for each one:
a) Illustrate the warning caption and explain its meaning
b) Explain the appropriate checklist/diagnosis procedure
c) Show a possible location of the fault in a suitable diagram.
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