Question 1 – D. Market Entry Strategies
Learning outcome 4: Be able to demonstrate and apply a working knowledge of market entry strategies
This major part of your Export Plan covers the positioning, marketing and promotion of your product or service in the market. Consider the following sections and topics:
1. Strategic Alliance, if applicable (co-marketing, co-production, joint venturing, licensing, franchising, etc.).
2. Target Customer Profile
• Direct customer (buyers, distributors, trading house).
• Who will they be?
• Demographics or company characteristics.
• Purchasing decision makers.
• Actual end users (individuals, families, elderly, youth, businesses).
• Who will they be?
• Demographics or company characteristics.
• Purchasing decision makers.
• Total market size and future growth potential.
3. New foreign market product or service description(s)
• Typical usage by the end users (what problems are being solved?), incl. sphere of influence concerning CSR.
• Unique selling attributes or competitive advantage(s)/market niche.
• Describe required product modifications, incl. options for sustainability improvements.
• Product characteristics (design, styles, colours, etc.).
• Quality characteristics.
• Product specifications standards (health and safety).
• Labelling, packaging, markings, language(s), show your CSR-considerations.
• Seasonality and life cycle of the product or service.
? Foreign intellectual property protection (trade name, trademarks, trade secrets, Patents, industrial designs,
?????4. Pricing Strategies
• Export costing analysis.
• Pricing constraints.
• Legislation (anti-dumping, price controls, resale price maintenance, etc.).
• Current market pricing (if necessary, consider typical profit margins in distribution chain).
• Price sensitivity (market acceptance of higher or lower price).
• Market penetration pricing strategy (market skimming, penetration pricing, flexible pricing, static pricing).
• Identify the impact of your pricing strategy down the supply chain.
5. Sales and Promotion Strategies
• Sales methods (company representative, subsidiary or affiliated company, foreign agent, foreign broker, mail
• Promotion methods.
• Advertising availability and regulatory constraints (newspapers, magazines, radio, television, Internet,
posters, flyers, letters, etc.).
• Demonstrations, trade fairs, trade missions, etc.
• Promotional tools (samples, in-store giveaways, discounts, consignment, etc.).
• Promotional message (consider cultural, religious, lifestyle/image, economic influences, etc.).
• Sales financing support, pre-arranged financing for purchaser (EZ, EVD, Export programs, Banks, etc.).
• Performance bonds and guarantee requirements.
• After sales services (returns, repairs, warranties, maintenance, training, communications/hotlines, etc.).
6. Logistics and Transportation
• Time lines between order processing and delivery (contract negotiations, production, invoicing, collections,
deliveries, communications, etc.).
• Negotiated delivery terms – Incoterms.
• Requirements and availability of warehousing and storage.
• Inventory control methods.
• Freight insurance requirements.
• Methods of transport identify special needs (e.g. refrigeration, heated, humidity sensitive, etc.), show your
• Usage of professional services intermediaries (freight forwarders and customs brokers).
• Documentation (import, export, health, quotas, inspections, customs preapprovals)
• Packing and marking requirements.
• Service or employment contracts (accreditation requirements, VISAS, immigration issues).
Question 2 – E. International Law
Learning outcome 5: Be able to demonstrate and apply relevant sources of international law
Understanding the legal environment in the country you are considering conducting business in is critical to the
success of your export initiative. Consider at least these key legal issues:
• Law of contract: the chosen legal system under which the contract is enforced.
• Securing Payment: if decision is favorable, how will you collect and who will enforce the collection
? Language consideration: the language used to bind the parties within the sales contract.
? Contract terms and Conditions
• Currency of payment and exchange rate.
• Method of payment (cash, letter of credit, documentary collection, open account, barter, counter trade,
• Product measurement methods and quality standards.
• Warrantees, after sales services, etc.
? Product Liability considerations: applicable foreign laws and regulations.
? Intellectual Property: the protection in the foreign market(s) required to maintain ownership.
? Sales Agent and/or Distributor agreements
Question 3 – F. Financial policy in exports
Learning outcome 6: Financial policy in exports
This section confirms the financial feasibility of your export venture.
? Organization of financial policy.
? Various financial characteristics of the export business
? Covering against currency risks
? Policy relating to debtors
? Export credit insurance
? International payments
? Financial documents
? Bank guarantees.
? Financing Requirements: identify term financing (loan required to invest in income generating
assets) and working capital requirements, equity contribution and collateral available to secure needed financing.
Question 4 – G. Risk Management
Learning outcome 7: Be able to demonstrate and apply an outline of risk management
In addition to the normal risks of business, conducting business in another country adds additional risks. Quantify them in this section. Make sure you cover:
1. Country Risk: assessment of political, regulatory and economic conditions, contingencies for problems (e.g. pre- payments, insurance, etc.).
2. Commercial Risk: assessment of creditworthiness, contingencies for non-performance such as default, refusal to accept goods, insolvency.
3. Currency Risk: contingencies for maintenance of value, (e.g. contractual value maintenance, forward contracts, currency options, etc.).
4. Internal Risk: contingencies for ensuring adequate manpower skills and availability control over production and distribution costs.
5. Market Risk: contingencies for changes in domestic and foreign market conditions.
CSR risks: contingencies for social and environmental, and risks concerning the governance of CSR
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