organisations and behaviour
The aim of this unit is to give learners an understanding of individual and group behaviour in organisations and to examine current theories and their application in managing behaviour in the workplace.
This unit focuses on the behaviour of individuals and groups within organisations. It explores the links between the structure and culture of organisations and how these interact and influence the behaviour of the workforce. The structure of a large multi-national company with thousands of employees worldwide will be very different from a small local business with 20 employees. The way in which an organisation structures and organises its workforce will impact on the culture that develops within the organisation. This system of shared values and beliefs will determine and shape the accepted patterns of behaviour of an organisations workforce. The culture in organisations that differ in size, for example, or are from different sectors of the economy can be very different.
The structure and culture of an organisation are key factors which contribute to motivating the workforce at all levels of the organisation. The Japanese were instrumental in developing a culture of ‘continuous improvement through teamwork’ in their manufacturing industry. This culture has now been exported around the world and encapsulates the way in which structure and culture contribute to patterns of behaviour in the workplace. This unit will develop learner understanding of the behaviour of people within organisations and of the significance that organisational design has on shaping that behaviour.
Learning outcomes and assessment criteria
In order to pass this unit, the assignment that you present for assessment needs to demonstrate that you can meet all the learning outcomes listed below.
Learning Outcomes ( LO) Assessment Criteria ( AC)
1. Understand the relationship between organisational structure and culture 1
1.1 compare and contrast different organisational structures and culture
1.2 explain how the relationship between an organisation’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business
1.3 discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at work
2. Understand different approaches to management and leadership 2
2.1 compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organisations
2.2 explain how organisational theory underpins the practice of management
2.3 evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organisations
3. Understand ways of using motivational theories in organizations 3
3.1 discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organisations in periods of change
3.2 compare the application of different motivational theories within the workplace
3.3 evaluate the usefulness of a motivation theory for managers
4. Understand mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organisations 4
4.1 explain the nature of groups and group behaviour within organisations
4.2 discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in organisations
4.3 evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within a given organisation.
Before you get started please read the following information very carefully.
Produce an informal report that addresses all the tasks in the assignment brief. You are encouraged to use diagrams or tables to illustrate and reinforce your findings. Any references to academic theory should be correctly cited and referenced in a bibliography at the end of the report. (please do not copy and paste information)
? Fully completed assignment cover page
? Title page
? Table of contents
? Main body of the report clearly identifying the separate outcomes and assessment criteria
? Conclusion and recommendations ( if relevant)
? References and bibliography
? Appendices only if relevant and necessary
The assignment brief includes headings relevant to the unit outcomes, read and follow the tasks listed under each heading and this will make certain that you cover all the outcomes and assessment criteria to achieve the unit.
Assessment and Grading
Read the assessment grading criteria before attempting the assignment tasks, as it contains important information about how you should approach your assignment and how grading is applied in order for you to achieve a pass, merit or distinction.
All assignments must be submitted by the agreed date, via MOODLE. Assignments submitted late, but with permission, will be marked as a pass only. Assignments submitted late, without permission, will not be marked until the end of the year, or the next time the unit is scheduled.
Please ensure that your assignment is attached to the assignment submission receipt and that you read and sign the statement confirming authenticity. Check that all relevant fields are completed fully before submission.
Once the assessor has marked your assignment, you will receive written feedback, either confirming that you have met the required standard and grade awarded, or that you have not yet met the standard and what you need to do to make the necessary improvements. Please note that achieved and confirmation of grades is provisional until signed off by the Internal Verifier.
Student Guide to Writing an Assignment
This is an assignment guide to help support you while completing your BTEC Assignments.
• Assignment writing guidance
• Referencing guidance
A reading list will be given to you at the first session unit session.
You should also read a good quality newspaper and/or use relevant internet sites regularly and identify key influences and recent and relevant research with regard to your subject area. You should read topical case studies and read about national campaigns and government initiatives in your area of interest.
Assessment and Grading Criteria
The grading of Edexcel BTEC Higher National Qualifications is at the unit and the qualification level. Each successfully completed unit will be graded as a pass, merit or distinction.
Learners will be awarded a merit or distinction grade by the aggregation of points gained through the successful achievement of individual units. The points will be calculated based on the unit credit size, the points available for each credit is: pass = 0 merit =1 distinction= 2. To achieve a merit grade overall you will need to accumulate a minimum of 75 points and for a distinction a minimum of 150 points.
To achieve a Pass • A pass grade is achievable by meeting all the requirements defined in the assessment criteria for pass for each unit.
To achieve a Merit a learner must: • The learners evidence shows, for example:
Identify and apply strategies to find appropriate solutions • Effective judgments have been made
• Complex problems with more than one variable have been explored
• An effective approach to study and research has been applied
Select/design and apply appropriate methods and techniques • Relevant theories and techniques have been applied
• A range of methods and techniques have been applied
• A range of sources of information has been used
• The selection of methods and techniques/sources has been justified
• The design of methods/techniques has been justified
• Complex information/data has been synthesized and processed.
• Appropriate learning methods/techniques have been applied.
Present and communicate appropriate findings • The appropriate structure and approach has been used
• Coherent, logical development of principles/concepts for the intended audience
• A range of methods of presentation have been used and technical language has been accurately used.
• Communication has taken place in familiar and unfamiliar contexts
• The communication is appropriate for familiar and unfamiliar audiences and appropriate media have been used.
To achieve a distinction a leaner must: • The learners evidence shows, for example:
Use critical reflection to evaluate own work and justify valid conclusions • Conclusions have been arrived at through synthesis of ideas and have been justified.
• The validity of results has been evaluated using defined criteria.
• Self-criticism of approach has taken place
• Realistic improvements have been proposed against defined characteristics for success.
Take responsibility for managing and organising activities.
• Autonomy/independence has been demonstrated
• Substantial activities, projects or investigations have been planned, managed and organized.
• Activities have been managed
• The unforeseen has been accommodated
• The importance of interdependence has been recognised and achieved.
Demonstrate convergent/lateral/creative thinking • Ideas have been generated and decisions taken
• Self-evaluation has taken place
• Convergent and lateral thinking have been applied
• Receptiveness to new ideas is evident
• Effective thinking has taken place in unfamiliar contexts
You are to carry out considerable research on an Organisation of your choice or one that you are familiar with. You will need to demonstrate that you have a good understanding of individual and group behaviour in organisations, and how to examine current theories and their application in managing behaviour in the workplace.
Please use the headings shown below when writing up your report Assessment Criteria coverage
Developing effective teamwork in organisations by considering the organisational structure, culture, employees’ motivational and leadership aspects. Title is provided
Briefly describe your organisation and what it does. Context of assignment is provided
Understand the relationship between organisational structure and culture (learning outcome 1)
An organisational structure is an integral part of any organisations culture. The structure is made up of various methods and practices that form the infrastructure of an organisation. Organisations have many different types of structures, for example: Tall and short hierarchical structure, functional, product-based or geographically based
To start your report, you are to:
a) Investigate two different organisational structures and culture.
b) Draw a diagram of the organisational structure for both companies.
c) You should be able to see the differences of the two orgainsational structures. The diagrams serve as the basis for you to compare and contract:
i. What are the things similar between the two organisations?
ii. What are the differences between the two organisations?
Explain (one of the organisation’s sampled above) to what extent and in what ways the relationship between an organisation’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business.
Behaviour of individuals can be influenced by the organisational culture, but also by personal characteristics of the worker. List and describe the major factors which influence behaviour of the individual.
Understand different approaches to management and leadership (learning outcome 2)
At this point in your report, you should have developed a good understanding of the different types of organisational structures and culture. You must now consider the different approaches to leadership styles,
a) Identify and briefly explain 5 major leadership styles.
b) Compare the 5 leadership styles and explain the effectiveness of these styles in different organisations (you should base your answer on the 2 organisations investigated in task 1a).
Classical and modern theories underpin the practice of management in organisations.
a) You are to identify 3 different organisational theories and approaches and explain the advantages and disadvantages of each theory in the practice of management.
b) Evaluate the 3 different theories and approaches, giving examples of organisations that use these approaches.
Understand ways of using motivational theories in organisations (learning outcome 3)
Describe the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organisations in periods of change
Part of an organisations culture is how they motivate individuals. Leadership styles will impact on how and what motivational theories will be applied.
a) Select and provide a brief explanation of any 3 of the motivational theories listed below:
b) Give examples of 3 workplace situations for each of the 3 motivational theories in answer 2a.
c) Compare and evaluate the 3 motivational theories against your own criteria of, ‘the benefits of motivational theory’ for managers.
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs;
• Herzberg’s Motivation – Hygiene theory;
• McGregor’s Theory X and Y;
• Vroom and Expectancy theories;
• Maccoby, McCrae and Costa – personality dimensions
Understand mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organisations (learning outcome 4)
Organisations are different in the way that they structure their workforce. The size and culture of the organisation will usually have a big impact and influence on the behaviour of the workforce.
You are to review the workforce in your organisation, to:
a) Identify and list, both formal and informal groups
b) Explain the nature and behavior of each of these groups.
c) Conclude by explaining group behavior in general within an organisation.
An effective team requires cohesion that is held together by several factors. In order to understand how to assessable an effective team you first need to know what these factors are.
a) Identify a minimum of 4 factors to consider when building an effective team
b) Discuss how these factors can promote the development of effective teamwork.
c) Discuss how these factors can inhibit the development of effective teamwork
Finally, evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within an organisation.
Grading Assessment Plan -Unit 3 Organisations and behaviour
Learning Outcomes To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to: To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to: To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:
Understand the relationship between organisational structure and culture. 1.1 compare and contrast different organisational structures and culture. 0
Good presentation of the structure and clearly identifies contrasting differences. M3 0
In-depth understanding of similarities and differences when making comparisons’. D3 0 1.2 explain how the relationship between an organisation’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business. 0
Explained the major points and reasonable judgments are made M1 0
Conclusions have been arrived at when explaining the impact of structure and culture. D2 0 1.3 discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at work. 0
Identifies most of the major factors and justifies choice. M3 0
Identifies all the major factors and effective thinking is evident. D3 0
Understand different approaches to management and leadership 2.1 compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organisations. 0
Comparison is based on a clear understanding of the major leadership styles M2 0
Conclusions have been arrived at through an in-depth assessment of the major leadership styles. D1 0 2.2 explain how organisational theory underpins the practice of management. 0
Suitable theories have been used to explain how they underpin management. M2 0
The explanation is based on a synthesis of relevant theories. D1 0 2.3 evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organisations. 0
Relevant techniques and approaches to management have been applied M3 0
Critical evaluation has taken place against defined criteria. D1 0
Understand ways of using motivational theories in organisations 3.1 discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organisations in periods of change 0
Impact of leadership styles is relevant to motivation in the situation. M1 0
Covers the full range of leadership styles, gives positive and negative examples for the situation D3 0 3.2 compare the application
Of different motivational theories within the workplace 0
Recognise appropriate motivational theories and application in different situations.M3 0
The comparison covers all major theories and the relevant factors of the theories. D1 0
3.3 evaluate the usefulness of a motivational theory for managers 0
Techniques are appropriate to the situation and conclusions are realistic. M2 0
Critical evaluation has taken place and conclusions are justified. D1 0
Understand mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organisations 4.1 explain the nature of groups and group behaviour within organisations. 0
Accurately identifies the nature and explains in considerable detail. M1
Research and analysis has taken place. D2 0 4.2 discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in organisations. 0
Covers the main factors and justifies decisions taken. M1 0
Provides a clear rationale that demonstrates effective thinking has taken place.D3 0 4.3 evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within a given organisation. 0
Evaluation techniques have been applied and relevant to the situation M2
Critical evaluation has taken place and own ideas have been generated and justified. D3 0
Students’ confirmation of authenticity. Sign and Date for Interim and Final Assessment
I confirm that this is my own work.
Student Signature: Date:
Assessor Signature: Date:
Student Signature: Date:
Assessor Signature: Date:
Final Unit Grade Achieved: Pass/Merit/Distinction:
Verification of Assessment Outcomes
Have the learning outcomes been met?
Yes 0No 0 Is the evidence?
Sufficient 0Reliable 0Valid 0Authentic 0 Is feedback given to the student?
Yes 0No 0 Are the grading decisions reliable?
Yes 0No 0 Comments
Internal Verifier Signature:
( if sampled) Date:
Standards Verifier Signature:
NB: Please ensure that all student feedback is recorded on the standard GCMS form and attached to the assignment brief before presenting for internal verification.
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