Phonology and Morphology
LX250: Introduction to Linguistics Spring 2014 -1- Homework: Phonology and Morphology 1. Phonology READ DIRECTIONS CAREFULLY!!! Kurmanji Kurdish is a Western Iranian language spoken in Turkey, Syria, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, among other places. Phonetically speaking, its inventory of stop consonants contains, among other things, voiced and voiceless velars [k], [g], voiced and voiceless “prevelars” [k?], [g?],1 and a voiceless uvular [q]. Part A. Consider the distributions of each of these sounds in the data below. Are some of these sounds in complementary distribution with some others? State as exhaustively as possible which sounds are in complementary distribution with which others, and which are in a contrastive distribution with which others. (Meaning, compare the distribution of each of these sounds with that of every other one, k vs. g, k vs. q, k vs. k?, etc., and decide whether each pairing involves complementary distribution or not.) Part B. Based on what you have observed, and the principles reviewed in class, decide how many independent phonemes there are among these five sounds. If certain sounds should be considered allophones of a single phoneme, state what these groupings should be. Part C. Where two or more sounds are allophones of a single phoneme, which of those allophones should be considered basic, and why? State a rule (either in precise-but-ordinary language, or in rule formalism, as you prefer) that derives each allophone from the basic, phonemic form you have chosen. ?g?i? ‘fire’ k?nd ‘owl’ k??vt?i ‘spoon’ g?h ‘ear’ g??l ‘many, much’ g????v ‘islands’ g?ez?? ‘carrot’ g?me? ‘water buffalo’ k??w ‘quail’ k?l ‘elderly’ k?e? ‘profit, benefit’ k?ilim ‘kilim’ k??n ‘short’ gog ‘ball’ q?l?w ‘fat’ q?z ‘goose’ qemi? ‘mercy’ qit? ‘given to grinning stupidly’ q????k ‘trash’ q?l ‘hole’ w?q?w?q ‘squeal of an animal’ g?isk ‘1-to-2-year-old male goat’ kutik ‘unripe cucumber’ kon ‘tent’ qum ‘sand’ qot??k ‘diligent’ 1 These in fact sound a bit like [k] or [g] followed by [j] – think of the consonant sequence at the beginning of English cute. LX250: Introduction to Linguistics Spring 2014 -2- 2. Phonetic vs. phonemic representation Give both phonetic and phonemic transcriptions of the following words of English. 1. den 2. total 3. parodic 4. statistics 5. remedy Morphology A. The following words are made up of either one or two morphemes. Isolate the morphemes and decide for each whether it is free or bound, and what kind of affix (prefix, suffix) is involved (if any). 1. cats 2. unclear 3. hateful 4. bicycle 5. entrust 6. spacious 7. register B. Turkish. Examine the following data from Turkish and answer the questions that follow. a. deniz sea i. elim my hand b. denize to a/the sea j. eller hands c. denizin of a/the sea k. di?ler teeth d. eve to a house l. di?imizin of our tooth e. evden from a house m. di?lerimizin of our teeth f. evd?ik little house n. eld?iklere to the little hands g. denizd?ikler little seas o. denizlerimizde in our seas h. elde in a/the hand p. evd?iklerimizde in our little houses 1. Give the Turkish morpheme that corresponds to each of the following translations: ___________ sea ___________ in ___________ my ___________ house ___________ to ___________ of ___________ hand ___________ from ___________ our LX250: Introduction to Linguistics Spring 2014 -3- ___________ tooth ___________ little ___________ plural marker 2. Specify a “template” for the order of morphemes for the composition of a complex word in Turkish, including slots for a noun stem, possessive marker (e.g., my, our, etc.), diminutive marker (i.e. ‘little’), case marker (here: to, of, in, etc.), and plural marker. (In other words, specify the order in which the above-listed morpheme types must occur relative to one another.) 3. How would you say “of our little hands” in Turkish?
ORDER THIS ESSAY HERE NOW AND GET A DISCOUNT !!!
Our Service Charter
Excellent Quality / 100% Plagiarism-FreeWe employ a number of measures to ensure top quality essays. The papers go through a system of quality control prior to delivery. We run plagiarism checks on each paper to ensure that they will be 100% plagiarism-free. So, only clean copies hit customers’ emails. We also never resell the papers completed by our writers. So, once it is checked using a plagiarism checker, the paper will be unique. Speaking of the academic writing standards, we will stick to the assignment brief given by the customer and assign the perfect writer. By saying “the perfect writer” we mean the one having an academic degree in the customer’s study field and positive feedback from other customers.
Free RevisionsWe keep the quality bar of all papers high. But in case you need some extra brilliance to the paper, here’s what to do. First of all, you can choose a top writer. It means that we will assign an expert with a degree in your subject. And secondly, you can rely on our editing services. Our editors will revise your papers, checking whether or not they comply with high standards of academic writing. In addition, editing entails adjusting content if it’s off the topic, adding more sources, refining the language style, and making sure the referencing style is followed.
Confidentiality / 100% No DisclosureWe make sure that clients’ personal data remains confidential and is not exploited for any purposes beyond those related to our services. We only ask you to provide us with the information that is required to produce the paper according to your writing needs. Please note that the payment info is protected as well. Feel free to refer to the support team for more information about our payment methods. The fact that you used our service is kept secret due to the advanced security standards. So, you can be sure that no one will find out that you got a paper from our writing service.
Money Back GuaranteeIf the writer doesn’t address all the questions on your assignment brief or the delivered paper appears to be off the topic, you can ask for a refund. Or, if it is applicable, you can opt in for free revision within 14-30 days, depending on your paper’s length. The revision or refund request should be sent within 14 days after delivery. The customer gets 100% money-back in case they haven't downloaded the paper. All approved refunds will be returned to the customer’s credit card or Bonus Balance in a form of store credit. Take a note that we will send an extra compensation if the customers goes with a store credit.
24/7 Customer SupportWe have a support team working 24/7 ready to give your issue concerning the order their immediate attention. If you have any questions about the ordering process, communication with the writer, payment options, feel free to join live chat. Be sure to get a fast response. They can also give you the exact price quote, taking into account the timing, desired academic level of the paper, and the number of pages.