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relationship between service and protocol

relationship between service and protocol
1, What is a service and what is a protocol in layered computer networks? What is the
relationship between service and protocol?
2, The performance of a client-server system is strongly influenced by two major network
characteristics: the bandwidth of the network (that is, how many bits/sec it can transport)
and the latency (a.k.a delay, that is, how many seconds it takes for the first bit to get from
the client to the server). Does a high bandwidth surely lead to low latency? If yes, why?
If not, give an example of a network that exhibits high bandwidth but also high latency
and an example of one that has both low bandwidth and low latency. Discuss now what
determines the latency and what does the bandwidth.
3, LAN is a broadcast network in that the information sent by a node can be heard by all
nodes in the same LAN. A disadvantage of a broadcast subnet is the capacity wasted
when multiple hosts attempt to access the channel at the same time. As a simplistic
example, suppose that time is divided into discrete slots, with each of the n hosts
attempting to use the channel with probability p during each slot. What fraction of the
slots will be wasted due to collisions?
4, A system has an n-layer protocol hierarchy. Applications generate messages of length
M bytes. At each of the layers, an h-byte header is added. What fraction of the network
bandwidth is filled with headers?
5, When a file is transferred between two computers, two acknowledgement strategies are
possible. In the first one, the file is chopped up into packets, which are individually
acknowledged by the receiver, but the file transfer as a whole is not acknowledged. In the
second one, the packets are not acknowledged individually, but the entire file is
acknowledged when it arrives. Discuss the good and bad sides of these two approaches.
6, How long is a bit in meters? Use a transmission speed of 10 Mbps and assume the
propagation speed in coax is 2/3 the speed of light in vacuum.
7. An image is 1600 × 1200 pixels with 3 bytes/pixel. Assume the image is
uncompressed. How long does it take to transmit it over a 56-kbps modem channel? Over
a 1-Mbps cable modem? Over a 10-Mbps Ethernet? Over 100-Mbps Ethernet? Over
gigabit Ethernet?
8, Suppose the algorithms used to implement the operations at layer k is changed. How
does this impact operations at layers k – 1 and k + 1? Suppose there is a change in the

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