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The name of the video is Emergent Literacy: Teacher Strategies and Assessment, directed by Walcoff, Larry, produced by Walcoff, Larry (Magna Systems, 2001), 29:32 mins (with transcript) http://ediv.alexanderstreet.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/View/1666599
M magna systems, inc. Presents Emergent Literacy © by Magna Systems, Inc. MMI Copyright and all rights, including Television, are reserved. This video is one in a series of programs presenting information about developmentally appropriate practice on a variety of topics designed for early childhood educators, caregivers, and students. A specially designed workbook accompanies this program and is published by Magna Systems, Inc. Video and work book distributed by Magna Systems, Inc. Emergent Literacy: – Teacher Strategies and AssessmentRhoda Olenick Professor of Child Development (retired) City Colleges of Chicago In this module we continue our explorationof a print-rich environment. We’ll begin with teachers showingthe books that they enjoy using and the criteria that they use for selecting them.Then we’ll look at some other strategies and materials that teachers usein this rich environment and finally we’ll explorethe issue of appropriate assessment for literacy development.We begin with the teachers presenting the booksthat the children enjoy and the reasons behindtheir choices. They’ll show us multicultural books,and books of special interest.
Carol Cook Teacher – Effie O.Ellis Head Start This… I chose thisbook, because this is a book that has other than the titlethere are no other words in the book. And so the child is able to look at this bookand figure out their own story. And every time you have this bookin front of the child the story changes, every single time.All the kids have their own interpretation of what’s there on the page in the book andit’s very interesting to see how they interpret from the pictures and it’s very,very rewarding to see how they are processing thingsand working through some things and figuring out what will happen nextand they do figure out what’s in the next page almost every single time.For instance, is called three catsand the women Anne Brouillard who wrote this book.[sil.]Carol Cook Now the next book I want to show you, Lucky Songby the Vera B. Williams. I like what she writes.So we have a lot of her books in the center, as a matter of fact we have several copiesof each of her books in the center, because when she writes, sheputs pictures of the children in the center of the pages, because the kidsare the center or they should be…the center…and I love that. Her colors are vibrant, exciting.[sil.]Bonnie Muirhead Project Coordinator – Effie O. Ellis Head Start In our center, we focus a lot on poetry, because it’s something that’s very popularwithin the community and the culture that we work in. Our school is largely African-Americanand this is a poem by Nikki Giovanni, it’s a beautify bookand it’s beautifully illustrated. And many of our childrenvisit relatives and relations and have family reunions when they go south and this takesplace in Tennessee which is where the poet comes from and it’s… it’s…it’s very beautiful, very beautiful use of language and familiar use of language. So we havea number of copies of poems because that’s very rich within the community, within theculture as well. There is some books alsothat I found over the years in working with teachers and being a teacher myselfthat we intuitively select because we know over theyears the children respond to it.
Carol Cook We have several books in the centerit tells about here. So in choosing books we want to find books that arerelevant to the child into the world. We have a book in the center calledNappy Hair, yeah this one is about I Love My Hair! And this book showsa little girl whose hair has been combed by her mother. The picturesare just remarkable and it is so life liketo me. So you want to find what’s important to the kids, something relative…relative to their world. You want to see themselves reflected in your books.Mildred Garcia Teacher – Effie O.Ellis Head Start But they chose is we make with books sometimes reflect what’s going on intheir house hold also like. If a mom had… just had a baby than we’ll talkabout that, you know of stories about babies coming in and like Peter’s Chair,the sharing between the siblings than or you know, you knowfathers, lot of books we bring in stories about daddies, about moms and lot ofgrandparents are now you know the main guardian also. So a lot ofstories about grandparents and so forth. And… and we based it onseasons too we’ll do that kind of stuff too, but we try most of our books to bring himin from the where the child. They will request the book or something that maybe going on with themor you know things like that. But you know we’ll do(ph) fall winter and spring in between all that because that’s going on too.But within all that we listen a lot, a lot to what the kids are sayingwhat’s going on and what they’re watching on TV, what are they playing outside with the boysand we tried to find something that you know relates to that, you know help them sortout or you know or just for enjoyment. The book Abby Yo-Yo is a very scary tothem but they love hearing it every single time, about that tall monster with the ugly scragglyhair and the teeth and they just love when they make it disappears.Bonnie Muirhead Sometimes also our selection of books have to deal with the… theinformation that we have and a parent will make a specific request, for exampleour parents were really eager that their children know the alphabet andwe don’t take a purist approach that they shall not have an alphabet in a pre-primaryclassroom and we offer Chicka Chicka Boom Boom which isan all time classic and favorite where the alphabet is introducedin a very playful, lively fashion that’s really appealing to youngchildren. And what we did is we purchased 10 additional copies and put it inour lending library so that the children could take this book home and enjoy itwith their family. And those of you who aren’t familiar with the book,I… I really advice that you… you get a copy of this to have, because it’s awonderful way of introducing the alphabet without…
Carol Cook Wrote…Bonnie Muirhead Yes.
Carol Cook Sit down memorizing the alphabet and write them 10 times on the line.
Bonnie Muirhead Right!Carol Cook And believe it or not, by the time a child has gone through his book a few times,the child is able to identify the alphabet that hadn’t been said.Write, A ten times on the line with a circle in theline, they figure it out. They are much smarter than getting them critique for.Bonnie Muirhead I think one final items thatwe also deal with books and with literates that’s it’s a wayof finding about people outside of yourself and things that aredifferent in the world and people that are different and different families and… and differentcustoms and we have lots of books celebrating other cultures and other peopleeven though our population is pretty much from theAfrican-American community. As I said, we have books about the Caribbean,books about Japan, books celebrating peoples from all around the world.If we have a grandmother book then we have strata known off from European culture in Europeanperspective. We also have a… a large number of books about Africa,so that they understand the roots of… of the culture that they came from as well.B. J. White Co-Director/Teacher – Effie O.Ellis Head Start This is… this bookUno, Dos, Tres: One, Two, Three by Barbara… Pat Mora andBarbara Lavallee is a good example ofsomething we would use in the classroom. It hasbright, good, big illustrations and it hasthe Spanish, like for examplethis has six castanet dancersthat are shown in the illustration and it has the Spanish words seis andthe English word sixand then you can count that answers. Sothe illustrations, a good book always the illustrations matchwhat the print, the meaning of the print. There isanother one in here where you can count the puppets,you can count the birds,and cuatro is fourand your counting the piñatas in the picture.So I would say that’s a keything to look for when you’re picking out books that work well for the children is to findillustrations, they’re going to catch their interest and illustrationsthat carry the meaning of the print and that has both the Englishand the Spanish words on the page.
Rhoda Olenick In addition to the criteriafor book selection that the teacher just mentioned there are few more points that I would like to make,the first is that when selecting a story book for children,there should be simple character that the children can identify witha simple plot and a satisfying climax as in this wonderful”Blueberries For Sal” by Robert McCloskey.Then there are the wonderful classicsdon’t ignore them, this is the one the Runaway Bunnywhich has been popular with children for generations.Caps for Sale also another classic.[sil.]Rhoda Olenick Millions of Cats, a very first picture books publishedin the United States.We want children to be respectful of each other and alsoof the environment and Miss Rumphiusis a wonderful story for that purpose.It’s also one which teaches children to respect older people.What I consider a new classicis this wonderful story about Stellalunathis lovely bat.In choosing expository books, those books which areinformation andcounting or alphabet books, just be very sure that thebooks are accurate and recent and this is abook has double purpose. It talks about bugs and it’s alsoaccounting book.For those of you who feel a little bit unsure about how to select books,become familiar with the Caldecott medal, this will help you select bookswhich are generally considered to bethe best and this was the wonderfulWhere The Wild Things Are Maurice Sendak who won the Caldecott.Kara Phillips …come in thetall, tall…
Kara Phillips Yeah, grass and I thought we couldread this since we’re growing grass since you are telling(ph) really well.Grass heads that we made today. Alright, it’s by Denise, this is by Denise Fleming.
Rhoda Olenick Big books are a usefulformat for presenting books to children.
Kara Phillips She read the book, she wrotethat words in the page right. AlrightIn the tall, tall grass,here its again in the tall, tall grass stars bright,moon light.
The blue caterpillar was in every page.Kara Phillips You notice that?
Yeah, Kara.Kara Phillips Oh what is it say it.
Good night, tall, tall grass.What’s that.
Kara Phillips Teacher – Harkness House for Children Grass.My task we walk to the library once a week, not in the summer time because they don’t do theprogram, but they do have a story time hour, they use big book you know big books at thelibrary as well. So it’s very familiar to them, I think it’s because the pictures are bigger, theprint is bigger, it’s easier for them to pick up things when you read. As far as usuallydo, we introduce the book, give the title and talk about the author. Most of them are veryfamiliar with and illustrative. We’ve been really kind of encouraging that with our library that we have set upbecause at time they will ask what does that say, you know what… what is why isher name on the front and why is there on the front or… oh that, you know that starts with the D, my name starts with D,you know that kind of tie in you know their own name with what theysee on the book cover. So introduce the big book in that aspect and then usually we kind oftalk about it I didn’t do that today, but you know we kind of oh look at the cover, what do you think it’s going to happen in thisbook. This book that we read today is very… they know it, most of them have you know either read itin our library or we’ve read like the term before or a lot of them have it at home, so it’s a familiarbook to them. So we introduced the book and then kind of predict whatwe think it’s going to happen and then go from there as far as asking them you know to helpsay the words or… lot of times they rhyme so it’s easy for them to pick up reputation inrhyme and then you know we go through, a lot of times you knowI may ask for them to kind of help me like, what do you think it’s going to be next predicting the next pageor you know what word do you think will be next or likeI know a child noticed there was a caterpillar every single picture of the book which I didn’t even get thattill today, so I mean obviously he has seen more where within I’m so…Rhoda Olenick Books on tape enable children to hear storiesat any time. Teachers may tape stories in their own voicesas well as using commercial tapes. In this case, Abby Yo-Yo,which was mentioned earlier.[sil.]Rhoda Olenick Computers are found today inmany classrooms. Children tend to use them for short periodsas an option among the activities in the roomand generally accompanied by another child.If books and writingmaterials are available in the classroom children will use them.Notice that the books in thisbookshelf are turned so that the children can see the covers and can then select the bookseasily. A comfortable chair or a pillow makes us a cozyspot to read books.Children gravitate toward the writing center. This writing center could be a table,which has all kinds of writing materials, papers,letters, cards.[sil.]Rhoda Olenick If space is a problem the art centercan double as a writing center.In this sequence you see children usingmaterials that came from a prop box which is just a box which containsall the materials related to a particular topicand in the workbook there will be suggestions for additional prop boxes.I was taking the burgers.
You want to grabeither good. Very good.
Shall I try it.
Yeah.How long it’s going to take to cook.
45 minutes… 45 minutes.
What oh,that’s a long time, I’m going to be hungry.
About little bit.
It’s sounds good.
No,it’s going to just take five.
Yeah, five minutes.
Then I can wait,I have time. I won’t be late for work.There is such a big happy meal over here.[sil.]I’m waiting, I have to get to work.Okay, can I taste it here?
Yeah.Who cooked this you, you…oh, my god, its your own recipe.
Here is a…here is a ice creams to go.
You and Arayana(ph) and you have to share it.Okay, we will… we will definitely share.
Both of them.
Both of them youhave to share.
Voice of – Diannia Jemison Teacher – Effie O. Ellis Head StartDiannia Jemison When we choosing on a black area and they started doing the labeling,we incorporate our literacy into different areas in the classroom, they are eager to writeand they love posting signs, so we may say well why don’t you guys makes stop signs because you’re goingto face, so why don’t you let everyone know what you’re doing, what kind of card have you made and thingsof that sort. At the… that particular time, they were hanging signs on the card that have madeand each letter had meaning to it which was a dropcard… drop card so they said it twice and they had four letters, each letter standing fora word so and they hang it out, so that everyone else could know what it was.Hey take it you has a loop.
Rhoda Olenick You’re lookingat a child’s version of a sign-in sheet. Teacher had postedup some papers that the children could sign-in if they want it to turnin a particular area. Although you might not recognize the child’ssignature, the child usually does. In a print-rich environmentchildren’s dictations cover the classroom walls and the cards.Diannia Jemison Well we… wedisplay a lot of the children’s writing in the classroom because they… they need to see that it… it means something saysalso. Literacy is more than just story dictation.So we have all forms of different writing, scribbling, you know the beginning of the lettersall types of palm(ph) writing we display on the classroom because then you know we have the…the scribbling with the letters and the children are comfortable even if they are not in the… the next stage,they’re comfortable what’s there in their paper up there with the other children who maybe in a different stage, a more advanced stage of writing.Rhoda Olenick Any experiencemay become an experience chart. Finding a wormis literacy and science.[sil.]Linda Schmidt Teacher-Effie O.Ellis Head Start We… we had found a worm when the classroom went outand when we came back in the children wanted to write about this wormso what we did is we talked about this worm. One child had said all the wormwas you know, small or skinny, another… another child had said held the worm,felt soft, another child had another comment aboutthe worm and it was all… you know it was all dictated. I’ve read the story, I’ve read what the childrenhad said about this worm, their comments and it was really powerful becauseit was their words and their comments about what they had… you know what they hadexperienced outside, which they really enjoy.So story dictation taking down their words has a lot of meaning from itsimpact and I believe it’s strengthens how they feelabout the written word and literacy.Rhoda Olenick All the charts and labels are part of the print-rich environment.These charts enable childrento find out what’s happening and when. You see a name chart.[sil.]Rhoda Olenick A schedule.[sil.]Rhoda Olenick And a job chart.[sil.]Rhoda Olenick It’s not necessary to label every piece of furniture.Use picture and word labels to help childrenfind and return materials to their specific locations.Measuring growth inany area is important. The question is what to measureand how to measure in determining the development of literacy.Bonnie Muirhead You can’t be in a classroom environment for more than 15minutes that is child centered at least because then the childrenare free to express what is on their mind and you can then see, hear,listen and document what they children are learning and how they’reprogressing. We really see ourselves as facilitators, wehelp the children to give form and structure to themeaning and the content that they present. And what we do as teachersas we document their work and they assist us when they areable to do that. So you could say that our form of assessment is tocollect samples of their work which is somewhat borrowing from myzealous assessment tool where he useswork-sampling and… and calls it that… And we… What we do is wecollect material, we document what the children actually do.We have some form of portfolio assessmentwhere we go over these materials and make it notes on them aboutprogress that we can record. I think theteachers have some example of that… that they have… havecollected, we all use photo documentation,we also have video tapes of children when they are actuallyplaying and children in a play environment are very productive and very creativeand very, very coherent and logical. And thisaids us in understanding the value of playbecause I think sometimes when you are in a classroom you get very caught up in thepitch, in the fervor, in the momentum of the classroom and videotaping play sessions is a good opportunity for a… a teacher tosit back in a more reflective mode and really look at what the children aretrying to express in play. And we’ve come to the conclusion thattheir… their play is extraordinarily analytic,it’s very coherent and they put tremendous demands on themselvesto act out stories and scenes and scenarios that makesense to them and when we look at them in the quiteof our training room or the staff loungewe can see some of the value and play as well. Assessment for us is anaid to help us keep track of curriculum. We don’t talk aboutassessment outside of curriculum, they are very intimatelyrelated and they feel on each other and assessmenthelps us plan a better program for our children so that we can more fullytarget the direction that their learning is taking and then we can be more supportivewith the children through assessment. We don’t use at this pointand I don’t think we feel we need to and our parents certainly support usin this any form of standardized assessment.
Rhoda Olenick Teachers have to make many choicein providing the materials and selecting the books that they will presentto their children. They must know their children,they must know what is developmentally appropriate practiceand they must have some understanding of cultural diversity.This supplies not only to the selection of the materials in the classroom,but also in how to assessthe development of literacy in the children that they teach.[sil.]Producer/Director Larry Walcoff Content Designer Rhonda Olenick Former Professor of Child Development City Colleges of Chicago Camera Operators Nick Kolias Michael Bai Editor Michael Bai Graphics Nick Kolias Audio Michael Bai Production Assistants Brianne Klugiewicz Phaedra Kolias Specials thanks to Dr. Effie O. Ellis Head Start Training Center Harkness House for Children North Avenue Day Nursery Truman College Child Development Center Produced by GENERAL LEARNING VIDEO for M magna systems, inc. Copyright © 2001 Magna Systems, Inc.
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