# What is the number of homicides in 30 different cities in the year of 2016?

Analyzing Data and Writing a report
Introduction
The main topic of study is “What is the number of homicides in 30 different cities in the year of 2016?” From this topic, it will be expected that the research will be able to determine the rate of homicides in different cities in the year 2016.
Population
The population for the study is the murder rate in cities in the year of 2016. Specifically, this will include conducting the study in 30 different cities to get the data for the analysis. Despite there being many cities, the selection will be made random to determine the rates of homicide in the selected regions or cities.
The Variable
The variables used for the collection of data collection was murder rates in the year 2016. This period was selected specifically as a sample for the study. This would help make conclusions on the broader population based on the few that were used in the study.
Data collection
My data collection process began with myself choosing the number of homicides in 30 different cities out of 50, using the website “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_by_murder_rate “. The steps I took to avoid bias in my sample is plugging in my variables in the calculator in the format of randIntNoRept (1,50,30) which then the calculator randomized the 50 variables but gave me the 30 randomized variables, and that helped me avoid bias in my sample. As a result, I gathered the 30 randomized variables and put them in a table, which would be my sample population.  The sample I obtained is a representative of my population because the 30 different cities I have is out of the 50 cities, which is means it’s a representative of population.
Data collection

A) To avoid bias in my sample I plugged in the 50 cities and instructed the calculator to choose 30 randomly, which it did then I gathered the data for the 30 different cities.
B) The sample I obtained does not represent the whole population because I used 30 different cities out of 50 for the sample. (As seen in the appendix)

Results

Sample size
Mean
Standard deviation

30
30025/30 1000.83
921.5

Rank
Municipality
Country
Homicides (2016)
Population (2016)
Homicides per 100,000

50
Durban
South Africa
1,261
3,662,000
34.43

32
Kingston
Jamaica
545
1,199,613
45.43

16
Vitôria da Conquista
Brazil
208
346,069
60.1

5
Victoria
Mexico
293
346,029
84.67

10
Natal
Brazil
1,097
1,577,072
69.56

20
Brazil
2,180
3,984,583
54.71

6
Maturín
Venezuela
499
592,574
84.21

13
Cape Town
South Africa
2,434
4,005,000
60.77

43
Nelson Mandela Bay
South Africa
495
1,263,000
39.19

19
Campos dos Goytacazes
Brazil
275
487,186
56.45

30
Gran Barcelona
Venezuela
397
846,353
46.86

31
Palmira, Valle del Cauca
Colombia
142
306,727
46.3

4
Distrito Central
Honduras
1,027
1,206,897
85.09

1
Caracas
Venezuela
4,308
3,305,204
130.35

35
Fortaleza
Brazil
1,808
4,019,213
44.98

36
Detroit
United States
302
677,116
44.6

45
Macapá
Brazil
179
465,495
38.45

23
Guatemala City
Guatemala
1,596
3,026,729
52.73

28
Recife
Brazil
1,887
3,940,456
47.89

47
Vitoria
Brazil
681
1,813,977
37.54

34
New Orleans
United States
176
389,617
45.17

40
Chihuahua
Mexico
369
878,062
42.02

17
Barquisimeto
Venezuela
785
1,322,068
59.38

11
Belém
Brazil
1,633
2,422,481
67.41

7
1,483
1,778,467
83.39

24
Culiacán
Mexico
469
905,265
51.81

15
Feira de Santana
Brazil
375
622,639
60.23

41
Obregón
Mexico
133
324,788
40.95

25
Maceió
Brazil
529
1,021,709
51.78

21
Cali
Colombia
1,358
2,514,759
54

It is appropriate to use the normal distribution to compute the confidence interval for the sample mean because the sample size is 30 and the minimum is 30 for it to be appropriate, in addition the standard deviation is known.
E329.75

1000.83 – 329.75  1000.83 – 329.75
671.0755  1330.5845
From the calculations, it can be seen that the range is approximately between 671.0755 to 1330.5845 homicides in the 30 different cities. This represents a high number as compared to the expected results.

Findings
Interpret the results of the statistical analysis in the context of the original research question and does your analysis support your expected findings? Explain
My research question was, what is the number of homicides in 30 different cities in the year 2016? After collecting a sample data for a number of homicides in a total of 30 different cities out of 50 cities, I found out a number of homicides deaths ranges from 671 to 1330 homicides per city. I am 95% confident that the interval from 671 to 1330 is the interval that contains the sample mean. The number of homicides deaths ranges from 671 to 1330 for 30 different cities and the analysis will vary depending on the country’s safety and location. For example, a country that has a lot of drugs and poverty would have more homicide rates than a country with no or little drugs and it will also depend on the government and how they enforce their laws, and if the government tries to prevent homicides. In addition, if there is corruption in the police force which does not take into consideration the safety of the citizens, then there is a problem because it depends on whether they put any efforts to protect their citizens.
Poverty is also a variable because usually the poor will try to commit crimes. The main reason for them to be involved in such behaviors is so that they can get something to cater for their lives. In most occasions, there are other regions where these people are involved in such practices so that they can rob those who are wealthy and as a result help themselves. However, there are those that are involved in such trends due to the substances they use in the name of satisfying themselves. In any case, it is the responsibility of the authorities to ensure that every citizen is safe from any form of violence. Those found to be in the wrong should be rightfully prosecuted and brought to justice. In this way, they will be maintaining peace in the society. In the end, every individual will live in harmony.
Discussion
Based on the findings, it is clear that the number of homicides is higher than expected. Although the number was expected to be approximately less than 900. From the findings, it was seen that the number of homicides in the cities tested was as high as 1330. From this value, the average can be approximated to be more than 671 which was the minimum. From these values, it can be concluded that these cities are involved with practices of homicide for one reason or another. Again, it is quite clear that the authorities are not working as they are expected to reduce the levels of homicide. The availability of gangs can be attributed to being one of the major causes of homicide. However, it is the mandate of the governmental authorities to ensure that every citizen is safe from such trends. They should be extra vigilant and take precautionary measures to ensure that no citizen is killed by another for any reason. In so doing, they will be taking responsibility for the lives of the citizens which is basically what they are supposed to be doing.
From the project, it was quite clear that the cities that had higher rates of homicide than others. These may be attributed to the fact that there are certain problems associated with their regions. Some of these problems may be the nature of the society and the authorities involved in the areas. From the research variable, murder rates in major cities in the year 2016, we learn that despite efforts by the government and authorities to curb homicide, it has not been successful. This means that they have to improve their efforts to curb this trend which is proving to be a hindrance to economic development. Most people end up dead or displaced due to fear of being killed hence destabilizing their involvement in economic development. The statistical analysis conducted was essential in helping understand the homicide rates in the different cities. In fact, the use of samples was important in helping make conclusions on the rate of homicides in the cities. This was so because it helped reduce the time that would rather have been taken to carry out the actual research study on all the cities physically. For this reason, the statistical analysis of the research was important in helping make valid conclusions on the rate of homicides in the cities.

Appendix

Rank
Municipality
Country
Homicides (2016)
Population (2016)
Homicides per 100,000

1
Caracas
Venezuela
4,308
3,305,204
130.35

2
Acapulco
Mexico
918
810,669
113.24

3
San Pedro Sula
Honduras
845
753,864
112.09

4
Distrito Central
Honduras
1,027
1,206,897
85.09

5
Victoria
Mexico
293
346,029
84.67

6
Maturín
Venezuela
499
592,574
84.21

7
1,483
1,778,467
83.39

8
Venezuela
727
877,547
82.84

9
Valencia
Venezuela
1,124
1,560,586
72.02

10
Natal
Brazil
1,097
1,577,072
69.56

11
Belém
Brazil
1,633
2,422,481
67.41

12
Aracaju
Brazil
589
938,550
62.76

13
Cape Town
South Africa
2,434
4,005,000
60.77

14
St. Louis
United States
188
311,404
60.37

15
Feira de Santana
Brazil
375
622,639
60.23

16
Vitôria da Conquista
Brazil
208
346,069
60.1

17
Barquisimeto
Venezuela
785
1,322,068
59.38

18
Cumaná
Venezuela
266
488,507
59.31

19
Campos dos Goytacazes
Brazil
275
487,186
56.45

20
Brazil
2,180
3,984,583
54.71

21
Cali
Colombia
1,358
2,514,759
54

22
Tijuana
Mexico
871
1,641,570
53.06

23
Guatemala City
Guatemala
1,596
3,026,729
52.73

24
Culiacán
Mexico
469
905,265
51.81

25
Maceió
Brazil
529
1,021,709
51.78

26
Baltimore
United States
318
621,849
51.14

27
Mazatlán
Mexico
245
502,547
48.75

28
Recife
Brazil
1,887
3,940,456
47.89

29
Joao Pessoa
Brazil
530
1,114,039
47.57

30
Gran Barcelona
Venezuela
397
846,353
46.86

31
Palmira, Valle del Cauca
Colombia
142
306,727
46.3

32
Kingston
Jamaica
545
1,199,613
45.43

33
Sao Luis
Brazil
693
1,526,213
45.41

34
New Orleans
United States
176
389,617
45.17

35
Fortaleza
Brazil
1,808
4,019,213
44.98

36
Detroit
United States
302
677,116
44.6

37
Juárez
Mexico
607
1,391,180
43.63

38
Teresina
Brazil
363
847,430
42.84

39
Cuiabá
Brazil
365
856,706
42.61

40
Chihuahua
Mexico
369
878,062
42.02

41
Obregón
Mexico
133
324,788
40.95

42
Goiânia y Aparecida de Goiânia
Brazil
782
1,980,774
39.48

43
Nelson Mandela Bay
South Africa
495
1,263,000
39.19

44
Armenia
Colombia
145
376,185
38.54

45
Macapá
Brazil
179
465,495
38.45

46
Manaus
Brazil
801
2,094,391
38.25

47
Vitoria
Brazil
681
1,813,977
37.54

48
Cúcuta
Colombia
305
824,406
37

49
Curitiba
Brazil
1,148
3,287,046
34.92

50
Durban
South Africa
1,261
3,662,000
34.43

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