Topic 1: The Internet and Social Media marketing Initiatives and their Role in the Growth and Development of SMEs in UK:
This study focuses on reviewing the theoretical framework underpinning internet and social media marketing initiatives and their role in the growth and development of SMEs. First, the importance of developing strategic social media plan where are several of tools are illustrated. Moreover, a critical focus on how a consumer-centric strategic social media plan is presented as well. Further, the Uk SME sector will be explored to provide insights on its trends and prospects in terms of internet and social media usages. By summarising this study, a conceptual framework for this study is developed.
1.2 The Role of The Internet and Social Media Today:
The role of the internet in the business environment to day cannot be ignored as it has developed to be among the most important support system for successful business ventures today (Christodulides, 2009). This is because it is not just a tool for accessing information, but also an interaction tool on which individuals are able to share ideas, opinions and information on virtual environments (Jobber and Fahy, 2009). Through the internet, online communication tools like the social media have been established. Social media is defined by Stelzner (2011) as a medium through which virtual communities are able to gather, share and interact with each other online activities and practices. It involves the flow of communications on two-way pattern where users are not only passive users of online content, but are also active contributors.
Social media describe the powerful ways through which individuals engage with each other on using, creating and promoting online content through the internet (DeHertogh et al, 2011). There are different media options that are available today including social networks, blogs, search engine optimisations (SEOs), and photo sites as illustrated in (Figure: 1 below):
Figure 1- Social Media Tools:
Source: Barid & Parasnis (2011).
2.0 Customer-Centric Social Media Plans:
Recent studies conducted by various researchers including Mitussis et al (2006), pointer (2010) and Sterne (2000) have revealed that consumers today are conducting online researchers prior to making their purchasing decision, where the decisions are mainly determined by comments and recommendations from a variety of social cliques. This implies that, brands’ information that is easily accessible through social media tools like social networks, blog and content communities tend to be preferred over the brands with limited information (Vargo & Lusch, 2004). Through some information posted by users through the social media about a brand may be negative, it makes it easier for the marketer to respond the information posted and assure the customers of better services; and thus fostering service recovery (Winterberg, 2010). This clearly implies that, firms which have their presence online are able to respond to the customers’ questions, feedback, opinions or comments in timely manner, unlike traditional channels which only offer one-way communication, and hence making it difficult for marketers to get the feedback for their products immediately. As a result, the rise of the social media technology seems to have provided new opportunities for marketers to be a position to keep closer contact on their brands and customer reactions in the markets.
Based on technology acceptance model (TAM) as developed by Venkatesh et al (2003), the ability of a consumer technology to be readily accepted by consumers due to its ease of use or effectiveness in enhancing their lives contributes towards its popularity. The ATM model was further advanced by Ming-Sung et al (2009) who proposed that, the perceived enjoyment and usability of technology enhances its acceptance by the target users. On this basis, the current popularity of social media among the consumers today can be attributed to its ease-of-use and enjoy ability which makes people accept it as part of their lifestyle (Chailom and Kaiwinit, 2011).
Further, considering that firms have no full autonomy of the content generated through the social media platforms, a sense of transparency are established when firms adopt social media approach in their marketing strategies (Bhagat et al, 2009). While customers are free to post and share their experiences with company’s products/services through the social media, a sense of trust and confidence is developed among the potential customer. However, some negative publicity about a brand or a product can lead to poor brand performance which in return contributes towards declined sales and subsequent loss of customer confidence (Easley & Klenbreg, 2010). It is therefore very important for marketers adopting social media marketing approach to be proactive in the social media platforms they employ so that they can be able to track customer comments, conservations and feedback in order to enable them to respond to any negative comments, or questions in timely manner.
3.0 Small and Medium Sized Enterprises and Social Media:
One of the characteristics of small and medium sized enterprises is that, they lack sufficient financial resources which can enable them conduct massive marketing communication campaigns (Weinberg, 2009). The rise of social media technology has provided SMEs with new opportunities through which they can leverage their customer relationship management systems at very low costs. According to Wuyts et al (2010), a well established social media strategy enables SMEs to grow steadily without requiring huge capital resources. As observed by Stelzenr (2012), a well developed social media strategy in SMEs enables them to be to compete with larger firms not only in the local markets, but also in the global platform.
According to study conducted by Dann & Dann (2011), most of the SMEs in the UK have only established social media platform through ‘build-it-they-will-come’ mentality thinking that establishing presence on the social media will guarantee them success. Poor planning has made it difficult for small and medium firms to manage social media due to the cumbersome nature of posting and responding to customer requests. This necessitates the establishment of clear goals and objectives for adopting social media approach (Drury, 2008). Based on Evans (2008) ideas, employing marketers to manage the social media networks that an SME has subscribed into enable it to be able to observe actively. For example, SMEs which post frequently on offers, new products, and any new activity in the organisation which offer new value to the customers often experience high customer traffic (Mayfield, 2008). The bottom-line social approach in firms today is active engagement of customers in order to nurture a sense of trust and confidence among the customers to the SME products.
Mangold and Faulds (2009) observed that, social media approach enables SMEs to be to build their brands socially, which further contributes towards their overall success I the market. Considering that social media is very cheap and readily available to everyone, SMEs are able to reach wide customer base more conveniently at very low costs (Weber, 2009). This means that, social media approach increases marketing communications efficiency, while maintaining the costs incurred in marketing low. Moreover, a strategic social media approach in SMES enables them to communicate their vision and mission, which keeping their message to the customers consists across a wide range of customers. It is thus cleary evident that, social media approach in SMEs contributes positively towards enhancing their brands names, which can further foster their competitiveness in the markets.
4.0 Customer-Centric Strategic Social Media Approach in SMEs:
While many prospective SMEs have to understand the impact of social media approach on their business performance, other have still been struggling to understand its impact on the brand performance (Palmer, 2014). According to SMB Group (2012), it has increasingly become important for firms to give up control of their brands and aspect that customers now manage their brands. This has necessitated the distribution of power from organisations to customers in order to facilitate effectiveness in marketing activates. Based on study conducted by Berthon et al (2008), consumers want valuable insights for brands in order to enable them to evaluate the strength of the brands. However, people are always used to marketer’s messages and thus necessitating some new approach through which they learn brands. As a result, the rise of social media which enables customers to create and post on social media platforms has provided new wyes through which potential customers can learn about brand (Hesse, 2014;Woodcock et al, 2011). It has therefore emerged that, social media approach enables potential customers to be able to learn about brand through their fellow customers, which has resulted into a sense of trust and confidence among customers.
Research ahs pointed out that social media communications sparks e-word-of-mouth (eWOM) than the other formal marketing strategies (Stelzner, 2012). For instance, social media communications fosters word-of-mouth by communicating to the potential customers on brand/product rating and other customer experiences with the products or marketing’ services. It usually becomes easier for customers to believe their fellow customers, unlike if the content was generated by the marketers. As such, Klosoky (2011) considers social media as a beacon of attracting, connecting and retaining customers, both in the short and long-run. However, Chailom and Kaiwinit (2011) suggests that it is quite important for marketers to consider keeping close contact on what their customers post on the social media in order to be able to respond in real-time on any questions or feedback provided by customers. Through this strategy, an organisation will be enhance its brand image and subsequently facilitate its growth.
5.0 Examine The Use of Social Media in the UK SME Sector:
By the 2013, about 99% of the business enterprises in the UK were SMEs which control about 70% of the UK market (Rhodes, 2013). With SMEs in the service industry accounting for about 72%, it is clearly evident that most SMEs in the K provide consumer services. As a result, competition in SME service sector has been very high, an this has necessitated business in the sector to keep close contact with their customers in order to acquire competitive advantage. The sue of social media approach has therefore become a necessity in order to enable the firms to manage their target customers’ needs more proactively. As reported by Palmer (2014), about 57% of SMEs today in the UK have adopted social media strategy to support their marketing activities. this comprises of substantial number of SMEs and brand management strategies in which 19% of them use Facebook, 14% LinkedIn, 4% Twitter and 15% other social media networks.
It has also been observed that, about 80% of SMEs in the UK have websites through which their customers can access the products or services they offer (Sage, 2013). Considering the way internet today is rapidly thriving in the consumer markets, it has not only become effective for the forms to have online presence through websites, but also necessary for sustained competitiveness (Hesse, 2014). This implies that, the internet has developed to be among the key technologies shaping the UK SME sector, as marketers embark on online communications to reach, and attract customers. As a result, the use of social media as a support platform through which marketers can reach a wide customer base and interact with them on real-time basis, it has increasingly become important for small and medium sized firms to adopt social media technology in order to ensure that they expand the platform through which they can reach both local and international consumers.
6.0 Summarise and Introducing a Conceptual Framework for This Study:
Based on the literatures reviewed in this study, it was evidence that the internet plays a very important link in fostering SMEs in the UK because it makes it easier for online consumers to find and know their brands. While the internet has remained pivotal in marketing today, one of the major technologies leveraged on the internet is the social media which has developed to be among the most consumer technologies today. Since social media enhance two-way communication, it has become easier for marketers to engage their online customers. As it has ben observed, brand ownership seems to have moved from the power of marketers to the consumers since consumers tend to create post and, manage content on social media platforms. This has made it easier for SMEs to connect with their customers more conveniently at relatively low costs.
In essence, social media through the internet seems to have enhanced easy monitoring and understanding of customer perceptions, creating of collaboration with customers, promotion of transparency and trust with customers, an making it easier for customers to know the performance of a brand/firm in the market through other customers’ reviews, which further leads to the success of the firm (as shown in Figure: 2below). Through websites, firms have been able to process some of the core business activities and this has contributed to their overall success.
The diagram shows the conceptual framework which the author has adopted for this study.
Figure: 2 – the Conceptual Framework for this Study:
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Topic 2: Corporate Social Responsibility Toward Small and Medium- Sized Enterprises:
The Corporate Social Responsible (CSR) is the one of the most dynamic and challenging subjects faced to today. The increasing interest in CSR can be associated with various factors, which is will discussed in this paper. Firstly, reviewing the concept of CSR from various study to understand the role of this concept and how they operate today. Then, the paper will concentrate on the impact of small medium sized enterprises in CSR. Furthermore, the study will determine some examples as a result of influencing of CSR on SMEs. Finally, the research will consider the challenging that faced SMEs and how they develop strategy to be sustainable corporate social reasonability
2.0 Literature review:
Corporate Social Responsibility is the one of the most discussable issues over decades (CSR). Is explained as a social responsible organisation (SRC) or corporate responsibility (CR) (Inyang, 2013). Whether its CSR or SRC or CR refers to a business ethically responsible to its stakeholders (Inyang, 2013). According to Kechiche and Sopamot (2012) Bowen in 1953 was the first introduced the idea of CSR describing an obligation for business to take certia factors into consideration during their operations for their business activities. These activities upon human, social and enological environment to see responsibility to companies stakeholders, which are namely employees, suppliers, clients, consumers, local community, environmental associations and NGOs (Inyang, 2013) All these are falling down within Freeman definition of stakeholders as “any individual or group of individuals who can affect or is affected by the achievement of an organization’s objectives” (Freeman, 1984; 46).
3.0 Definition of CSR:
According to Davis and Blomstrooms (1975) in Inyang (2013), they consider CSR as ‘’ obligation of decision makers to take actions which protest and improve the welfare of society as a whole along with their own interest”. CSR is aims to protect and improve society and thus bringing positive benefits to society.
Davis and Blomstrooms (1975)
Obligation of decision makers to take actions which protest and improve the welfare of society as a whole along with their own interest.
The social responsibility of business encompasses the economic, legal, ethical and discretionary expectations that society has of organisation at a given point in time.
The World Business Council for Sustainability Development
The commitment of business to contribute to sustainable economic development, working with employees, their families, local community and society at large to improve their quality of life (WBSCD, 2009)
Industry Canada (2007)
The way firms integrate social, environmental and economic concerns with their values, culture, decision making, strategy and operations in a transparent and accountable manner and thereby establish better practices within the firm, create wealth and improve society.
EU Commission (2002)
CSR is a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis.
CSR is about the economy having an ethos or set of values- sometimes expressed in their vision, mission and goals of the organisation and many business practices to produce an overall positive impact on society.
Iiu and Fong (2010)
CSR is largely understood as a range f voluntary initiatives, beyond legal and contractual requirements, which, if undertaken effectively should eventually benefit the workforce, their families and local communities and ultimately improve the overall welfare of the community and contribute to economic development.
Inyang, Awa and Enuoh (2011)
Obligation of businessmen to pursue those policies, to make those decisions to follow those lines of action, which are desirable in terms of objectives and values to the society of their location.
From the Table: 1, Davis and Blomstroom defines CSR as to protect and improve society and thus bringing positive benefits to society. Carroll’s has mentioned a four-dimensional definition of CSR involves the conduct of a business, that it is economically profitable, law abiding, ethically oriented and socially supportive. Similarity, the definitional issues regarding CSR have remained an area of declarations are as well supported by (WBSCD in (2009), Industry Canada in (2007), Industry Canada in (2007), EU Commission in (2002), Ferisleben in (2012) and Iiu and Fong in (2010). On the other hand, Inyang, Awa and Enuoh in (2011) provided a useful definition that is elastic enough to accommodate the varied concerns of CSR. Issues of, economic profitability, legal concern, ethical and philanthropic activities, are sustainability in all its ramifications and ecological, social. In addition, businessmen invest in projects that have specific effect on the community and are profitable to the firm and its stakeholders can be accommodated in their definition.
4.0 Small and Medium- Sized Enterprises (SMEs):
The definition of SMEs varies in context, countries, industries, organisations, agencies and the academic community. (Inyang, 2013) the Table: 2 below describe the different scale of measuring SMEs and as often define to numerically or specifically:
Small and Medium Sized Enterprises – Measurement of Workforce- Employees number
Work force ranging from
100 Is The Upper Limits
EU Standard fewer than 250
250 Is The Upper Limits
Small Scale Enterprise
Small scale Enterprise
The European Union Standard definition of SMEs is any business with fewer than 250 employees and turnover of up to 50 million Euros with balance sheet of 43 million Euro, however, in some countries this may not be applicable . As there are a very bored range of independents businesses from established traditional family business employing over handed people. On the other hand, SMEs are defined as a personal management by owner, and therefore there are disgtushed from large companies in terms of owner management, independent, multitasking, fire-fighting, cash limited, personal relationships and informality. (Inyan,2013)
According to Lepoutre and Heene (2006) present a definition of SMEs in terms of small business responsibility, a responsible entrepreneur is:
Treat customers, Business partners and competitors
Cares about health, safety and general well-being of employees and customers
Motivates the workforce by offering training and development opportunities.
Acts as a god citizen in the local community
Is respectful of natural resources and the environment.
These characterises directly affect SMES in engagement in CSR, as Small business owner tend to be employee, customer and community focus and CSR designed to satisfy these stakeholders.
5.0 Determining Factors of Corporate commitment within SMEs:
SMEs can vary greatly in terms of size, mission, sector etc. and commitment to CSR depends on various factors. These factors can be summarised from latest literature studies on Table: 3, below:
Authors – Studies
Implementation To CSR
Labelle and Saint Pierre (2010)
Identify three groups of factors: Institutional, Organisational and Personal.
Influence the decision can implement responsible policy, as size of businesses can implement CSR by SMEs.
Larger sized SMEs are more sensitive to CSR, than smaller or micro businesses
Larger SMEs are able to absorb fixed costs and having greater access to resources.
Directors of small-scale businesses, play a key role in his public, professional and political dealing.
CSR can influence the behaviour of other SMEs in same sector, which aims to deal with social issues, to reduce cost of implementation in same market.
Ede et al (2000)
Younger directors are more socially responsible than elders. Although, Education level of a company directors can play critical part in CSR
Strong local experience have an affect upon the implantation of CSR, as well as, local businesses can benefit of many resources
Worthington et al (2008)
CSR in SMEs down to the pressure applied by stakeholders
Investing in human dynamic to create strong relation with all stakeholders which influences commitment to CSR
The aim of Table: 3 was to highlight the main determining commitment behind implementation of CSR in SMEs. As some authors believe that SMEs are more sensitive to practices relating to internal stakeholders e.g. their employees, clients and suppliers. In fact according to Laponite (2006) in Kechie & Soparnot (2012) the intermediary of the value chain, mainly the pressure exerted by large businesses, that SMEs commit to and implement CSR practices. Pressure exerted by stakeholders is often not very effective and is not for a business to implement measures which beyond legal and administrative requirements (Kechie and Soparnot, 2012).
6.0 Positive Examples As a result of CSR in SMEs:
There are numbers of Advantages when implementing CSR in SMEs. For instance, enhanced reputation and corporate image, improvement of working relations with staff, improvement in production process and quality (Kechie and Soparnot, 2012).
CSR can develop innovative products and services in SMEs (Jenkins, 2009). A reduction of costs and increased efficiency, as a result, of the responsible behaviour (Jenkins, 2009; Russo & Tencati, 2009). Managers can be more careful by measuring and substitute products which green and less harmful to the environment as well as reducing wastage (Reynaud & Mathieu, 2005). At the same time, CSR can be viewed as a method for SMEs in their objectives in communication with their clients and commercial partners, this will enhanced image and reputation (Collins et al., 2007).
7.0 Challenging associated when adapt CSR by SMEs:
There are many barriers with adaptation CSR by SMEs have been seen and Identified by Inyang (2013):
Lake of financial resources often affects SMEs in adapting CSR, as usually the cost is too high.
Limited Knowledge among SMEs, due to social performance issues
Lake of awareness of the CSR benefits with little understanding of the business case for SMEs.
Lack of capacity in terms of analysing and using of tools and measurements by SMEs.
The systematic tools are usually for large companies and not relevance to SMEs
Lack of information activities on CSR affected SMEs when behaving with their commitments.
8.0 How SMEs engage in CSR:
According to Inyang (2013), SMEs can integrate CSR by following several strategies in their communities and locations.
Table:4 summarised strategies for SMEs in adapt CSR:
Strategies for SMEs
How to implement CSR?
SMEs can engage into their communities by involve in certain activates such as, sports, health, education and regular meting with community.
Relationship with workforce, SMEs can consider rewarding, training and development, educate their staff on safety, health, issues and environment concern as well as the role of CSR.
SMEs have to treat their consumers ethically by providing quality products, trust in advertising and services. Usually consumers are concern on safety, reliability, fair pricing and their needs. SMEs have to be very close with their consumers and able to understand their needs and wants.
SMEs have to be concerns with their environment by designing friendly products, green energy , efficient use of resources and minimise wastages. SMEs have to take a responsible practice in a large-scale
SMEs would providing their goods to large companies which automatically undertake responsible on environment and social . as large businesses, usually putting pressure on SMEs to behave responsible. Usually large firms having ability and control of their suppliers and influencing them on CSR activities.
9.0 Conclusions and Recommendations:
CSR is concerns with little obligations and continues to be as fluid. SMEs recently enhance the role in participation in such activities towards CSR. In fact, the research has shown that the SMEs are motivated by internal and external influence that drives CSR. However, small and medium sized enterprises creating more avenues for a greater growth, reputational may impact and damage in failure to engagement and incorporate CSR. As a result, CSR will cause more harm to business that not curry out responsibilities within their communities.
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Topic 3: Introduction:
This paper will examine the important of internal marketing to be considering by companies to their employees. The research will review the concept internal marketing, external marketing, service quality and Total Quality management (TQM).
Nowadays, the important and deterministic role of organisation internal customers (employees) in achieving aims and objectives. Over 30 years ago Berry (1981) defined internal marketing as “viewing employees as internal customers, viewing jobs as internal products that satisfy the needs and wants of these internal customers while addressing the objectives of the organisation”. Since that time, researchers have developed different definitions in order to explain ideas. Main ideas discussed on around affects on employees, for instance, internal marketing is focused on proper internal relation between people at all levels of an organisation (Rayej, 2008). Berry and Parasuraman (1991) in Cahill (1996) “Internal marketing is attracting, developing, motivating, and recruiting qualified employees through job-products that satisfy their needs. Internal marketing is the philosophy of treating employees as customers. Like as ‘wooing’ employees and is the strategy is shaping the job products to fit human needs” (Cahill, 1996). The important of this definition is to satisfy employees’ needs to motivate and develop human resource management thinking. Furthermore, Kotler and Armstrong (1999) stated that internal marketing to be considering before external marketing. As a result, internal marketing is critical to any firms for creating value for their customers with integrating both internal and external marketing together. Therefore, managements in organisation must treat their employees as the their external customers, this will lead to enhance the performance of the firms as will as adding a massive values for both employees and customers.
Generally service marketing has grown dramatically; as a result, competitors among other increase and become more complicated. The aims of any organisations are to satisfy the customers needs and wants to insure loyalty is service quality (Kotler and Armstrong, 2006). Quality has two dimensions: technical quality, deal the behaviour of the services provided. While, Functional quality deals with the behaviour of the employees providing services and interaction with customers. (kotler and Armstrong, 2006). Therefore, skills, attitudes and behaviour of personnel are important, as well as, people responsible to level of quality that is expected by the customers. Kotler and Keller in (2006) developed marketing service triangle which stated that service require three types of marketing; internal, external and interactive as is shown on (Figure:2),
External marketing which includes pricing, distribution and promotion of services to the customers. Interactive marketing, explain the personal skilfulness in regard to services with behaviour towards to the customers. Internal marketing, providing training and motivation of employees in regard to services provider. Thus, internal marketing is the most important element of the service marketing. It will be hard for companies if they have lack in their internal resources and human capital. In fact, strategies will be efficient one if the external and internal integrated together by organisations strategy.
Internal Marketing and Service Quality:
According to Allerd (2001) define service quality as to confirm or adapt requirement which services create specific requirements and specify the service that provide. Beside that, many research explain service quality as a dimension. Zeithaml and Binter (2006) see services quality as reflect to the customer of specified dimension for service, such as reliability, responsiveness, confirmation, good dealing and material evidence. In other word organisation should put standards for their specifications when they put quality goals.
Service is concerned, basically with quality of individuals who produce and provide these services. According to Lings (2000) employees’ satisfaction is basic condition and first step to achieve and customer satisfaction. Therefore, archiving customer satisfaction is depending on internal marketing program that satisfy employees needs and wants.
Internal Marketing and Organisational Commitment:
The important factor that affects internal markets is the organisation it self, management responsible to consider their employees needs and wants. This attitude would have a positive view in job satisfaction, but lack of commitment it cause more poor performance will impact on external marketing. According to Schlesenger & Heskett (1991) high to motivation employees is result to awareness in crease of employee about their role in increase customers’ satisfaction. Therefore, higher commitment to employees results to increase job performance, better ethical and less willingness to leave employees their job.
Human resource management is the primary issue of internal marketing due to difficulties of organisations to position human it into their internal marketing steps. Theses issues include recruitment, training, salary and pays system and performance. Therefore, the attitude of organisation managements relative to human resources to management style and internal marketing steps would impact on job performance (Zhang & Liu, 2010). Moreover, internal marketing steps have a positive impact on the organisation commitment and performance as staff satisfaction and staff commitment (Awwad &Agi, 2011).
Internal Marketing Tools:
The success of relationship marketing strategies is critically dependent on attitudes, commitment and performance of employees. Hence, relationship marketing is highly dependent on an on going internal marketing programme for successfully implementation.
Stage 1 -Direction
The presence of the product element. The product can be viewed as the direction of changed, which changes in attitudes and behaviours of employees that is required for the effective implantation of a particular functional strategy. The product in this sense requires direction by internal capability by the firms. Internal marketing research will identifying external opportunities and to take advantage of the changed. Whereas external margining broadly t identified the capabilities and competencies through examine various of selecting employees. Therefore, this information will be sit to process of specifying the product for long-term success.
Stage 2 – Path
The direction needs to breaking into specific programs that have to be delivered to participants’ element. At this level, the employees’ attention to be in viewed in the process with implementation and participants, whether directly or indirectly involved, depend on the choice made on stage 1.
The process of employee segmentation depends on the basis the work required. This strategy is creating specific package in a manner to satisfy employee’s needs and mediate their fears. A marketing research can bring while range of technics.
The targeting and positioning will be construction and appropriate leverage of the remaining element of marketing mix.
The approach of marketing mix and techniques play a critical role of internal segmentation and internal positioning which is can be useful employed in internal context of any organisations. The model serves to highlight the importance of an internal focus capable of interlinking with an external focus. Marketing department should not be charged for running internal marketing programs. As the fictional debarments will have a tendency to lead to.
Diagram: 1 – adopted from
Total Quality Management:
Since the 1980s, the use of TQM has become widespread. Quality is fundamental tools for delivering customer satisfaction. According to W.E. Demimg (1986), commititness come from delivering customer satisfaction which is created by being responsive to the customer’s view and needs, and constituently improving the fulfilment of these through continuous improvement of the product and service. According to Ishikawa, (1985) suggest that quality means of; work, services, system, information, people, information, process and objectivise. Quality management drives from a business philosophy that focused on customer satisfaction. It works in all activities of in an organisation. According to Deming, TQM is founded on three basis; empowered employees, continuous quality improvement and quality improvement teams.
By combining TQM with marketing through internal marketing can lead to integration of operations, activates and efforts for strategy implementation (Varey, 1995). Therefore, these lead to integration between quality, employee loyalty, productivity and profits. In fact, TQM and marketing when used together, result in greater customer satisfaction and allow the company to sustain competitive edge. The Table: below shown the attention by firms in the success of the quality program between employee and the company:
Table: – The Outcome of Quality Programs between Employees and Firms :
Quality of process
Internal marketing examine the process for overall aims, assessing and align these to strategic goals and them=n communicating the existence of the process, and informing how the process functions. By raising the awareness of aims of function, then will improve the operational quality of the process
Quality of Infrastructure
Internal marketing assess the quality of the internal structures, resources and activities. and then examine how these process are managed.
Quality of Interaction
A direct consequence of high quality exchange, and the internal relationships can be improved to maintain desired aims.
Quality of Environment
Internal marketing will assesses the organisational atmosphere by determining people cooperate and operate on such a high quality level on communication, trust and commitment within the organisational structure
Quality of people
Assesses the current capabilities and competencies of people, and identified the gaps that need to be filed. As well as assessing the experiences, motivations for embedding the quality of employees
Quality of Plans
Examine and help to translate strategies into tactical plans for operations. Considering what benefits individuals can derive from implanting these strategies in long term and short term, and then develop appropriate internal strategies.
On the other hand, quality of product and services will be deliver to the external marketing, which customers can receive with satisfaction. Therefore, when combining internal marketing with TQM means that everyone in all parts of the organisation paces top pairotry on customer-led continuous quality improvement. This will require managing all internal and external relationships and processes.
Strategic approach for internal marketing:
Internal marketing is one of the most
Internal marketing is an important as implementation tools. it aids communication and helps to overcome to any changes that faced by the organisations. It informs all employees in ne initiatives and strategies. From the Figure: 000 shown that, a typical organisation, can deduct that internal marketing is as much important as external marketing and it is marketing strategic success when it analyses both internal and external marketing strategies at the same time. When a company focused only on external marketing approaches, it will get far form its internal activities. as a result , may cause a strategic deviation in a dynamic environment. The organisation needs develop the internal marketing strategy among side their structure. Setting the objectivise, strategies, tactics and evaluating these among their resources. It’s important for firms to day to consider their internal marketing as a strategy prior alongside with their business objectivise. Therefore, all business functions can integrate with strategies with their approach to both internal and external marketing to facilitate long-term and short-term objectives.
Figure: 00 Systematic Approach To Marketing strategy – adopted from …..
Internal Marketing strategy outcome; modified by the author:
Internal Marketing Strategy
Viewing employees as internal customers
This will enable employees satisfaction which in turn would lead to better performance
Enabling employees to be customer oriented
Using the similar structure to external marketing by developing a programs for internal marketing in order stimulate employees with customers behaviour.
Human resource management
The objective to stimulate employees by encouraging, mobilising, recruiting, training and managing
Effective care within internal communications to deliver better and trustful meaning to its external customers
Providing the needs satisfied employees and work quality
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the 21st Century: Facing the Challenge.
Cahill, D. J. (1996). Internal Marketing: Your Company’s Next Stage of Growth. New York: The Haworth Press, Inc.
Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of the Crisis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ishikawa, K. (1985). What is Total Quality Control, The Japanese Way. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
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Lings, Ian. N. (2000). The Impact of Internal Market Orientation on External Market Orientation and
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Rayej, H., 2008. Surveying the internal marketing activities of keshavarzi bank and its relationship with customer orientation level. MBA. Thesis, University of Tehran.
Varey, R.J. (1995) Internal marketing: a review and some interdisciplinary research challenges. International Journal of Service Industry Management [online], 6(1), pp. 40-63 .
Zeithaml, V. A., Bitner, M. J., & Gremler, D. D. (2006). Service Marketing Integrating Customer Focus Across the Firm. New York: McGraw-Hill Erwin.
Assessment feedback sheet
Evaluation – content and theoretical underpinning
originality, innovation and
depth in the content and theory which is comparable to published work .
In the main the portfolio is insightful and has an appropriate selection of content and theory in key areas identified in the brief.
Key theories and ideas are
included in the portfolio of work in an appropriate manner although not consistently across all tasks.
of content/theory but
some key aspects
missed/misconstrued. Lack of theory in most tasks.
Does not address the assignment brief. Uses Inaccurate or inappropriate
Application and illustration
Portfolio consistently demonstrates application of
and contests the published literature through high level of debate.
Engagement with critical perspectives and solid comparison of author’s views. Clear evidence
of application and questioning of theory through critical analysis.
Portfolio is mainly descriptive but meets learning outcomes. There is some critical analysis but mainly explores the issues in general, showing knowledge and application.
A descriptive portfolio which has very little critical analysis. Lack of evidence provide to achieve masters level work
No critical thought/
Presentation and Harvard Referencing
Mostly comparable to published literature in this subject area. Presentation standard of the portfolio is excellent; consistent with academic protocol. Referencing clear, relevant and consistently accurate using the Harvard system
Sound academic writing in comparison to published work showing some potential. Presentation overall of good standard with few errors in grammar and syntax. Referencing relevant and mostly accurate using the Harvard system.
Presentation has limitations including some errors in grammar and syntax; Minor inconsistencies and inaccuracies in referencing using the Harvard system
but language not always fluent, grammar and spelling is often inaccurate. Presentation is poor in structure and includes errors in grammar and syntax. Referencing present
having many inconsistencies
and spelling poor. Structure and presentation is not of an acceptable standard including faulty grammar and syntax. Referencing mainly
inaccurate or absent.
You have clearly read well and demonstrate a clear understanding of each of your topics; you have attempted to write in a critical style, although this is sometimes descriptive and repetitive in places. There are many basic spelling and typographical errors and this work would have benefitted from having been proof-read as it feels rushed in places; and there are many changes in font throughout. There is also a tendency to put things in lists and tables which prevents you from developing a coherent, critical narrative.
A reasonable attempt but to improve this you must write more coherently and proof-read your work.
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