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Topic: Energy Efficiency and Public Transportation
Paper outline

Background to the study

Motivation for carrying out the study

Literature review
Research methodology and design
Conclusion and recommendations

Background to the study
Transportation is responsible for over 30% of greenhouse gas emissions, 66% percent of fuel consumption and about 50% of urban air pollution in the U.S (Sperling and Lutsey, 2009). The rising use of energy-intensive transportation modes, particularly cars and trucks is alarming. Bus and rail transport now account for only 3% of passenger transit in the U.S.

To compare fuel consumption and efficiency when using buses and light rail in the cities.
To compare light rail and buses in terms of emission of greenhouse gases.
To compare public versus private transportation in terms of energy consumption and gas emissions.

The cost of energy has been steadily rising especially that of oil, derived from fossil fuels. There is need to conserve energy to ensure sustainability for the future generation. The use of private means of transport, not only lead to general energy consumption, but also congestion on the roads and increased carbon emissions into the atmosphere. According to American Public Transportation Association (2010), an individual commuting alone by a car, who shifts to use public transport for a 20-mile trip can reduce his. Her annual carbon (IV) oxide emissions by 4,800 pounds per annum. Moreover, households who use public transport save approximately $6,251 every year even with increase in the price of fuel. The potential of public transport to conserve energy, money and reduce pollution sparkled my interest on the topic.
Literature review
The materials listed in the reference section of this paper will be used for literature review. The review will focus on: energy efficiency in public transport (Metsäpuroand Liimatainen, 2012), transit energy efficiency, public transportation, light rail transportation and greenhouse gas emissions.
Research design and methodology
This section will include research design and justification, data collection from secondary sources and data analysis. Correlational analysis will be used as case of Sperling and Lutsey, (2009).
Conclusion and recommendations
The results of the analysis will guide the researcher in making relevant conclusions and provide a basis for offering recommendations on what need to be adopted and possibly the need for further studies on the topic.
Task schedule for the project report


Presenting the concept paper to get professor’s approval

Writing the literature review

Developing data collection tools

Data collection

Data analysis

Report compilation and presentation

Aarnink, S., van Essen, H., Schroten, A.,andOtten, M. (2015). Saving fuel, saving costsImpacts and reduction potential for corporate fleets. Greenpeace. http://www.greenpeace.org.uk/sites/files/gpuk/CEDelft_Saving%20fuels%20saving%20costs%2020150410_final%20%283%29.pdf
American Public Transportation Association (2009). Public Transportation Saves Energy and Helps Our Environment. http://www.apta.com/gap/policyresearch/Documents/facts_environment_09.pdf
American Public Transportation Association (2010). Public Transportation Reduces Greenhouse Gases and Conserves Energy. http://www.apta.com/resources/reportsandpublications/Documents/greenhouse_brochure.pdf
Kojima, K. and Ryan, L. (2010). Transport Energy Efficiency: Implementation of IEA Recommendations since 2009 and next steps. International Energy Agency. Paris, France.https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/transport_energy_efficiency.pdf
Lipscy, P and Schipper, L. (2010). Energy Efficiency in the Japanese Transport Sector. http://web.stanford.edu/~plipscy/JapanTransport2012-2-22.pdf
Litman, T. (2015). Evaluating Public Transit as an Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Strategy Victoria Transport Policy Institute. http://www.vtpi.org/tran_climate.pdf
Metsäpuro, P and Liimatainen, H. (2012). Energy efficiency in local public transport.
Transport Research Centre Verne, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland
Ottawa Light Rail (2012). The Benefits of Light Rail. Ottawa, Canada. http://www.ligneconfederationline.ca/media/pdf/The%20Benefits%20of%20Light%20Rail%20-%20Web.pdf
Shapiro, R. J.,Hassett, K.A and Arnold F.S (2002). Conserving Energy and Preserving the Environment: The Role of PublicTransportation. American Public Transportation Association. http://sonecon.com/docs/studies/enenv_0702.pdf
Sperling, D and Lutsey, N. (2009). Energy Efficiency in Passenger Transportation. The Bridge. Vol. 39, No. 2, Summer 2009. National Academy of Engineering. Washington D.C. https://www.nae.edu/Publications/Bridge/EnergyEfficiency14874/EnergyEfficiencyinPassengerTransportation.aspx

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