Advertising Theory and the Mass Media
The mass media has become very essential in the economy. The media cannot be easily separated from the economy and society at large because it plays a vital role in marketing. Advertising is one of the most important tenets of marketing. It is well done through the mass media. There are numerous objectives of advertising. One of the most essential objectives being communication with customers and persuading the customers to either adopt or develop a preference towards certain products. Therefore, one of the theories that are commonly used in mass media is the advertising theory. This paper discusses the advertising theory in the context of the mass media and its role in marketing (Kellner, Para. 1).
Advertising and advertising theory
Advertising is a form of communication that is used for persuasive purposes. It is carried in coded messages, which are passed to the audience or would be the customers. These messages are passed through the mass media, which include the radio, the television commercials, the newspaper and magazines, the outdoor advertisement and the emergent or new media. The emergent media are comprised of websites, blogs and even text messages (Hansen and Lars, pp. 259).
There are different advertising theories. These include the hierarchy of effects model, the means-end theory, the leverage points and the political economy of advertisement theory. Even though the theories are different in approaches, the target goals of all these theories are the same. Most advertising theories propose that details the essence of advertisement depends on the practices being undertaken, among them being exposure to brands of a company (Hansen and Lars, pp. 259).
Advertising theories and marketing via the mass media
The major goal of advertising is attaining brand loyalty from the audience or the customers. Brand loyalty can only come into the picture when the audience is fully aware of the product or something that is being advertised. This brings in the essence of using the mass media for advertising. While advertisement and advertising theories have been common in the marketing and business fields, they are being exported to the media. This denotes that the media has become the major center or focus of advertising for both profit oriented and even the non-profit oriented firms. Advertising theories use messages, content specification, consumer characteristics, product characteristics, competitive actions and the media features. Mass media have provided good channels, which have aided in simplifying advertising by providing diverse channels of advertising (Branston and Stafford, pp. 1).
The critical studies of the media in the second half of the 20th century have made emphasis on the role of mass media and mass communication in advertisement. The mass media plays the economic, social and cultural roles in society. Advertising falls within the different roles of the media: The media is used for enhancing social and cultural norms and activities. However, the mass media has also become a segment of the economy and works for profits. Therefore, advertising by the mass media is often used for enhancing marketing of products in the economy. The role of the mass media in advertising cannot be overemphasized because the media has become very vibrant in advertising. Many firms entirely peg their marketing initiatives on the media – advertising. They invest huge sums of money in the media so that they can have their products reach the wider audience. The reason behind this is that there is a notion that the mass media reaches or covers a wide audience (Kellner, para. 1).
The early theories of advertisement point out that advertisers consider themselves see themselves as communicators working on a top-down basis. They control the information that is released to the audience and the channels of communication that are used in releasing this information. This approach does not apply directly to the mass media and its role in advertising. Companies which market through the mass media are the determinants of the time and the manner in which the media advertises their products. Advertisers and the mass media industry are being forced to factor in the issue of the audiences that are targeted by the adverts being made. The mass media are being encouraged to involve consumers in advertising (Branston and Stafford, pp. 12).
Because of the diversity of the mass media, there are many examples of advertising in the mass media. These include television advertising, infomercials, online advertising, press advertising, product placement, advertising on bill boards and radio advertising among other examples. Each example of advertising goes with a particular medium which is used in carrying the advertisement (Branston and Stafford, pp. 12).
Advertising theory and the new media
The rate of information exchange and flow has been accelerated with the coming of the new media. This is a positive sign in the growth of the mass media and its role in marketing. The new media utilizes high technology in information and communication technologies. This includes the internet, the web and even the cell phones. The new media have offered new opportunities for restructuring and improving advertising. The consumer and the public culture can easily be changed using the new media. The new media have necessitated a review of the advertising theory. Many companies have been shifting from the normal media to the new media. The intensity of technology in the new media has a great potential of improving advertising. It has many advantages that include speed and wider coverage among many other benefits (Spurgeon, pp. 1).
Many people and companies have developed an interest on how the new media works and how they can utilize it in speeding advertising and the general marketing of their products or businesses. There are varieties of new media, which utilizes conversational productivity of the customers. This extends the options and range of media choices available for advertisers. These choices even go past the niche and the mass media. Many advertiser-funded media industries are coming up resulting in changes in modalities and norms of advertising (Spurgeon, pp. 1).
Conversational media are becoming the major driver of advertising in this new economy. The new economy embraces information and networks for business building and growth. The conversational media offer a variety of social interaction patterns through the new communication systems used in the new media. Advertisers take advantage of the social networks, and social exchange in the new media to enhance marketing through advertisement. The internet gives more open opportunities and a platform for enhancing commerce through advertising. New training is being offered on the way in which firms can utilize the new media to maximize marketing through advertisement (Spurgeon, pp. 2).
The adverting theories explain how customers can be reached using different models. The goals of advertising are well defined; reaching more customers and creating customer loyalty on the products and services. The mass media has boosted advertising for business firms in the economy. The media continue to develop, and the new mass media has emerged. The revolution in the mass media calls for remodeling the advertising theories to fit and best utilize the new media in advertising.
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