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Domestic and International Terrorism_6

Q1. It is inadequate to leave the foreign policy aspects of bioterrorism solely to the arms control, non-proliferation, defense, or law enforcement realms of foreign policy. To tackle the threat posed by bioterrorism, a more elaborate approach is necessary. The use of biological weapons is always as in any other form of terrorism aimed at creating psychological and physical destruction of the target. The use of such weaponry is also varied in that it can be applied strategically or tactically. Further, bioterrorism does not only target humans primarily but can also be used on crops and livestock. Bio agents can also be created which target infrastructure all with an aim to instill an economic loss to the target group. Instead of simply formulating policies aimed at countering terrorism threat and leaving them to be implemented by army officials and other security agencies, there is a need to involve a myriad of other stakeholders. The tendency of policies to incorporate non-proliferation as a strategy may not be wholly effective. The mere possession of biologically lethal agents does not necessarily translate into possession of biological weapons. Even the idea of having dangerous biological agents or microorganisms such as anthrax, tularemia, Ebola or toxic substances such as botulinum with the theoretical potential to inflict damage does not make them weapons. This therefore means confiscating such agents as advocated by the policies would not be effective in combatting bioterrorism. In addition, unlike other terror attacks whose effect is immediate, the disastrous effects associated with biological weapons can persist for longer and therefore instead of developing empty foreign policies, countries should shift the focus on establishing measures that mitigate the proliferation of bio-attacks through rapid detection, quarantines, vaccine development and inventing effective curative antibiotics (Ackerman & Moran, 2006).Q2. In dealing with weapons of mass destruction and terrorism, collaboration between the foreign policy, public health, and defense establishments is not only possible and productive, it is absolutely vital. Currently, the terrorism threat is only a preserve of law enforcers, security and intelligence bodies to handle. It is however important to realize that threats such as that posed by bioterrorism are technical in nature and require knowledge of public health, environmental and other experts. In short this type of terrorism is too broad in context as to be left solely to such organizations. Concepts such epidemiology and other scientifically based knowledge to counter terror acts such as use of biological weapons are of utmost necessity. Strong and coordinated working relations and networking should be encouraged among policy developers, public health and security agencies to facilitate a deeper understanding of such forms of terrorism and weaponry development. The rapidly evolving scientific world such as advances in biotechnology should be matched by relevant information flow and assimilation by both policy makers and security agencies to effectively understand the dynamics of science in relation to manufacture of weapons of mass destruction. Public health is an integral component of security in today’s world. A significant proportion of world deaths are caused by infectious diseases. Bioterrorism could adversely lead to spread of such agents across borders. By recognizing public health as a common security alarm, more collaborative strategies among all agencies could enhance preparedness and response potential (Ackerman & Moran, 2006).

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