Various stereotypes have been developed on the differences in emotional reaction by men and women. In most cases, women are said to be emotional, and their reaction to vents is usually emotional. However, some studies have proved that men also show emotional reactions to certain events. The extent which both men and women react to emotions differs in terms of intensity. This indicates that certain events make men react to high level of intensity whereas other events will cause low intensity. On the other hand, women react with high intensity to certain emotional events. They also react to a low intensity to other events. This shows that the stereotypes developed by people concerning emotional reactions have some truth, while other stereotypes have no theoretical or practical foundations at all. This indicates that men are different from women in terms of how they react to emotional events. Conducting a research on emotional reactions to events has various challenges. For example, it is sometimes impossible to identify the exact reaction that men attach to certain events. Men will always hide their emotions, but women expose their emotions and it is easy to read their reactions to emotional events. This makes challenging to study the emotional reactions of men to different emotional events (Hutson-Comeaux & Kelly, 2002). In addition, the extent to which they react to emotions is not easy to identify various theories have been developed to explain the differences in emotional reactions between the two genders. Therefore, there is need to carry out intensive and extensive study on the behavior of both genders to identify the exact emotional reactions attached to certain events (Fischer, 2001).
According to Hutson-Comeaux and Kelly (2002), women are said to express their emotions more than men. Hutson-Comeaux and Kelly examined the stereotypes that have been developed about emotional reactions. This was done in relation to the gender differences among the participants engaged in the survey. The validity of emotions was measured to identify gender differences during emotional expressions. The authors also studied the perception of emotional reactions in relation to gender inconsistency. I was hypothesized that emotional reactions that are gender-inconsistent were rated to have higher validity than emotional reactions which are gender-consistent. An evaluation was done about how appropriate and sincere the participants were when reactive to emotions of happiness and when angry. The events applied ranged from the context of interpersonal experiences to emotional events. Women were said not to be sincere in their emotional reactions. It was also established that the reaction of women to happy events was not as appropriate as that of men. On the other hand, it was found that men are not as appropriate as women when expressing reactions to angry events. In addition, men are not as sincere as women when expressing reactions to angry events (Hutson-Comeaux & Kelly, 2002).
This article is related o the experiment being conducted in that it relates emotions to gender differences. It is evident that men and women have different reactions to emotions during the events of happiness and when angry. Men and women express their emotions differently, and this shows that the article is very important in developing the theoretical background of the experiment being conducted. In addition, the article provides literature about the intensity of expression of emotions. The authors show that men have higher intensity when expressing emotions of happiness than women. On the other hand, women show more intensity when expressing emotions during the events when they are angry. This article supports the hypotheses developed in the experiment. It is important to mention that this article is applied as the main article of reference because it has adequate information about the emotional reactions of both men and women.
In his experiment, Wallbott (1998) found out that women are better when they communicate emotions by the use of facial expressions compared to men. He did his survey on a group of actors, and aimed at identifying the differences in facial expression of emotions by both genders. Expert judges who had adequate knowledge of the movie were used to examine the facial expression of the participants. Women were found to express fear and sadness, by the use of facial expressions, in a better way than men. On the other hand, men were found to be better in expressing anger through facial expressions. This experiment shows that, gender differences in the expression of emotions are evident in both movies and in real life situations (Wallbott, 1998).
This article is important in the experiment because it helps develop a better understanding of the intensity of emotional expression by both genders. As such, the article provides a better foundation of creating better hypothesis for the experiment. The article will help develop a better survey of gender differences when expressing emotions. It also provides a better system of analyzing the methodology portion of the survey. The theory and methodology are interlinked properly and there is proper transition of from one point to another.
Hess, Adams and Kleck (2009) conducted a research to identify differences in facial expressions among men and women. This research was conducted to determine whether both genders had the same or different facial expressions when exposed to different emotional events. It was established that women have different facial expressions to emotional events compared to men. It was found that men are like to show androgynous faces when expressing anger. Fear and happiness are best expressed in women by raising eyebrows and having a rounded face while smiling. It is difficult to identify men who are happy or fearful because they do not easily express such emotions facially. On the other hand, women can express emotions of happiness or fear by the use of their faces. Therefore, it was concluded that fear and happiness are best used by women to express their emotions. On the other hand, men apply facial expression to show emotions of anger (Hess, Adams & Kleck, 2009).
This article relates to the experiment in that it provides differences in emotional expressions between men and women. It shows that there are differences in emotional expression between men and women. In addition, the article shows that the extent to which the emotions are expressed by both genders is different. As such, the emotions of happiness and fear are expressed to a great extent by women and by a less magnitude by men. Conversely, the emotions of anger are expressed to a greater extent by` men and to a less extent by women. This shows that there are differences in emotional expression in terms of gender. As such, the hypothesis of the experiment has been confirmed because the intensity of expressing emotions has been found to differ between the two genders.
In this experiment, 17 participants will be selected, and all of them will be students. The sample of students will be composed of 13 females and 4 male students pursuing undergraduate studies. Four stories will be made and they will be randomly shuffled. The stories will be passed around the classroom, and participants will be required to read the stories. The intensity of emotion of the target individuals in the story will be determined by the participants. The location of the participants in the story will be controlled. A Latin square design will be applied in randomizing gender and emotion.
The first story will be of a person, Larry, who is said to have been sitting in a mall while checking his email. He immediately receives acceptance letter from UCLA, which is his dream school. He shouts and jumps while dancing. He also calls his friends as well as his family members to deliver the good news. The second story will be of a guy, Britney, who reacts in a similar manner to Larry after receiving news about admission to his favorite school.
The third story will be of a man, Brandon, who is siting with his girlfriend. The girlfriend reveals that she had kissed the best friend to his boyfriend. Brandon becomes angry and starts to yell at his girlfriend. The last story will be of a lady, Jennifer, who is sitting with his boyfriend. The boyfriend reveals that he kissed the best friend to her. Jennifer becomes angry and starts to yell at him.
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