Every student in the university campus has to write academic, research papers and also provide academic presentations during the course of their study. In the course of preparing these papers, students are faced with an academic challenge referred to as plagiarism. Plagiarism can simply be termed as passing off of someone’s ideas, thoughts, songs, or work as your own.
Plagiarism occurs when the author`s work is copied or used without proper citation. Tutors and lecturers insist that it is important to instill good writing and presentation skills in students to avoid plagiarism. This can only be achieved through paraphrasing which entails constant practice to achieve this objective.
Scholars have carried out numerous studies on the effectiveness of learning where other modes of teaching or lecturing have been used and it is evident that PowerPoint presentations enhance learning and understanding of students. There are things which can not be explained orally such as diagrams, pictures and graphs. When faced with this challenge, the best approach to use is PowerPoint presentations.
Traditionally lecturers used to write all the learning content on a blackboard in front of the classroom. What the lecturer writes on the blackboard has a huge effect on the understanding of the students. It is a real-time and flexible process of transferring the knowledge and learning content from the teacher to the students. One advantage of this form of communication is that, the students can pay more attention to enhance their classroom experiences.
In traditional classrooms, tutors write the problem and solving procedure on the blackboard in a step-by-step fashion. This allows the tutor to emphasize on abstract concepts in a flexible manner during the lesson. It allows students to feel the subtle rhythms in the teacher’s teaching, and makes it easier for students to comprehend, understand and learn the content.
Research is the world’s biggest industry at the moment. Those who cannot do it well or evaluate that of others will find them selves sidelined in the world increasingly dependent on ideas and information produced by trust worthy inquiry and then presented clearly and accurately.in fact research presented by others in writing is the source of what we believe.
Paraphrasing encourages the reader or student to make connections with prior knowledge, to access what is already known about the topic and to use words that are part of the reader’s knowledge. It helps the reader establishes retrieval cues that enable integration of what is previously known with what is being read, an important part of comprehension ( Kletzien, 2009)
It is common for lecturers when grading papers to find instances where the students correctly attribute their written submissions to the original author, but their writing are too close to the work of the original author. Most academic writing manuals consider this to be plagiarism. Plagiarism can be avoided by use of citations. There are various ways of providing citations in a paper some of them include: American Psychological Association-APA, Modern Language Association-MLA, Turabian style, Chicago, Oxford and Harvard (Almeida, 2008).
Although paraphrasing has been identified as a strategy that good readers use, it has not received as much attention as many of the other comprehension strategies, such as visualization, using prior knowledge, or questioning. Yet research into teaching students to use paraphrasing either alone or in conjunction with other strategies has demonstrated its benefit. In several intervention studies, paraphrasing has been found to help special education students increase their comprehension (Roig, 2001).
According to Almeida (2008) paraphrasing is a reading comprehension learning strategy that helps individuals learn by reading a paragraph passage, thinking about the paragraph’s main points and details, and then putting the main points and details in their own words. Paraphrasing helps students to monitor their understanding and encourages them to access what they have previously read about a particular topic.
In teaching, one drawback of using blackboard writing is the fact that presenting the materials is time consuming. This is especially true when the teacher’s back obscures a portion of what is written on the blackboard, which increases the level of restiveness in the class. It also limits the way of presenting teaching materials (Bartsch & Cobern, 2003).
For example, writing on a blackboard provides an inflexible presentation, few colors and styles, as well as difficulties in displaying pictures or multimedia content. The second disadvantage is that materials cannot be stored, reused, reproduced, or interchanged. Consequently, students have to make notes or copy the material from the blackboard, all of which is inconvenient. This results in an increased external cognitive load and splits the student’s attention. Thirdly, blackboard writing is differs from teacher to teacher. Fourthly, a large amount of chalk dust is produced when using a blackboard (Beyer, 2011).
Normally students are faced with a lot of challenges when they have to present their work or defend their thesis. Some of these challenges include drawing of diagrams, graphs and presentation of pictures. Normally human beings are able to comprehend audio and visual stimulus simultaneously. Recently lecturers are being delivered using presentation software such as Microsoft PowerPoint. Using PowerPoint to present lectures benefits students because PowerPoint slide contain various multimedia formats such as text, sound, graphs, charts and video. This teaching manner contributes to the students further constructing learning concepts and information analysis (Yen-Shou, Hung-Hsu & Pao-Ta, 2011).
The use of PowerPoint is being widely applied in the blended learning environment to improve learning. The multimedia learning environment uses several types of representation including text, audio, graphs, photographs, animation, or video. The multimedia teaching content is readily and effectively communicated between teachers and learners using popular presentation devices such as monitors or projectors. Today many researchers are focused on constructing multimedia instructional environments such as electronic classrooms, virtual classrooms and interactive multimedia environments (Beyer, 2011).
Research is creative work carried out systematically to increase the stock of knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. Another reason why we research and write is to get our thoughts and ideas out of our heads and put them down on paper. Most individual’s students and lecturers alike believe our ideas are more compelling in our minds than on paper. You can not know how good your ideas are unless you separate them from thoughts and fix them in an organized form that you and other people can study. (Tulinius, etal 2012).
There are various forms of research, first is scientific research which relies on the application of the scientific methods of data collection. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. Secondly we have artistic research, also seen as practice-based research, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth (Rogers, 2012).
Theft of intellectual property is criminal in nature and my lead to prosecution in a court of law. Academic writers and scholars should ensure that all sourced material should be properly referenced and cited so as to uphold their own personal and institutional integrity. Paraphrasing is one of the best modes students can use in their assignment writing to avoid plagiarism. Work of the original author should be properly cited using the convectional citation methods. This will ensure students do not get a fail in their examinations.
As technology advances so does the mode of teaching and presentation need to change, PowerPoint presentations can best be used to illustrate diagrams, charts, graphs and pictures. One advantage of PowerPoint is that it is able to simultaneously use visual and audio stimulus. Secondly PowerPoint applications are easy to store as they require very little storage space.
Research involves the use of materials, ideas and text from different authors. During research students must ensure that they adhere to the set standards of citation. Anytime we try to gather information to answer a specific question or solve a particular problem we are conducting a research. When students search for information to complete their assignments they engage in academic research.
We write not to just share our work but to also improve on it before we share. Research entails reading and everyone can not memorize everything he has read. Research writing also provides a larger picture of what you have read. When you arrange and rearrange the results of your research in new ways you discover new implications, connections and complications.
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