Ornithos Atlantic Rainforest
Time of webcam observations: 20:30:19-21:00:19 Brazil time
Date of webcam observations: August 25, 2012
Location of webcam: Ornithos Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil.
URL of webcam: http://www.worldlandtrust.org/webcams/ornithos
Species within the view of the Webcam
White butterfly-like insect
The white insect appeared twice between 20:30:19 and 21:00:19 Brazil times. The insect flew around the trees and disappeared towards the left side of the webcam.
Four tree species
Four distinct tree species were observed in Ornithos Atlantic Rainforest between 20:30:19 and 21:00:19 Brazil times. One of the tree species had a thick stem and branches. The leaves of this tree were not observable within the viewpoint of the webcam. This tree species was located in the middle background of the webcam. The second tree had banana-like leaves and occupied the left hand side of the webcam. The branches and stem of this tree were not covered within the view of the webcam. The third tree species comprised of shrubs that occupied the lower left side the webcam. The leaves of these shrubs were bright, green and irregular in shapes. The fourth tree species composed of the dry stems in the middle background of the webcam. This tree species had no leaves nor branches since the remaining branches were dry.
The bat flew from the left side of the webcam. It spent two minutes within the view of the camera before exploring the feeding table. The bat then disappeared to the left side of the webcam.
Ornithos Atlantic Rainforest is characterized by wet and warm climate. Mean monthly temperatures remain above 180C throughout the year. The forest floor receives only 2% of the solar radiation due to extensive canopy. Ornithos Atlantic Rainforest receives more than 2,000 millimeter of rain per year (Marent & Morgan, 2006). The inter-tropical convergence zone plays a crucial role in creating the climatic conditions suitable for rain forests. The precipitation in this forest ranges between 700 and 1,600 millimeter. Approximately 50% of this precipitation comes from the forest’s own precipitation (Livejoy & Hannah, 2005). Ornithos Atlantic Rainforest is humid across the year because of heavy rains. Around 75% of the biotic species in Ornithos Atlantic Rainforest are indigenous.
Patterns and Density of Biodiversity in Ornithos Atlantic Rainforest
The rapid expansion of human population and economies in the 21st century has led to stresses on natural ecosystems and the species within them (Marent & Morgan, 2006). Biodiversity is the range of variation found among the living organisms. Ecosystem refers to any geographic location occupied by living organisms and the nonliving parts of their physical environment. Ornithos Atlantic Rainforest has a dense and irregular tree species. The trees do not have any uniformity in pattern since Ornithos Atlantic Rainforest is a natural forest. The forest is covered by a variety of indigenous trees, but only four species were observable within the view of the webcam (Marent & Morgan, 2006). The forest also hosts a variety of animal species such as insects, reptiles and birds. The webcam, however, captured the white butterfly-like insect and a bat.
Factors Influencing Biodiversity in Ornithos Atlantic Rainforest
The first factor influencing biodiversity in Ornithos Atlantic Rainforest is global climate. Weather forecasters have revealed rapid climate change across the world. Climate change such as increased temperatures, wind and intensity of sunshine affects the ecosystems in the Ornithos Atlantic Rainforest (DellaSalla, 2011). Organisms that do not have rapid adaptive features cannot survive extreme climatic conditions, and thus cease to exist. The second factor influencing biodiversity is natural disturbances. Storms and strong winds are common in rainforest areas, and frequently cause considerable damage in forests (Marent & Morgan, 2006). Gaps caused by these winds and storms destroy the habitat for flora and fauna. This result in reduction, extinction and migration of animal and plant species that cannot withstand the harsh conditions. Third, human factors such as cutting down trees, intentional or unintentional forest fires and disturbances destroy the habitat and life of the organisms.
The trees with thick stems are most vulnerable to human influences. People cut down huge trees to make timber and fuel. High demand for wood and wood products may encourage business people to cut down trees with the aim of making profits (Marent & Morgan, 2006). This will reduce the number of tall trees in the ecosystem and destroy the habitat for animal and plant life.
Unobservable Species in Ornithos Atlantic Rainforest
The size and topographical complexity of the rainy environment allows for considerable specialization and geographic isolation of plants and animals. Several types of animals and plants existing in Ornithos Atlantic Rainforest were not captured by the webcam. These are Plain Parakeets and Black Jacobin. Plain Parakeets are a species of parrot, which belong to the Psittacidae family (DellaSalla, 2011). They occupy moist lowlands in the tropical and moist mountain forests. These birds are common in urban areas of Curitiba and Sao Paulo in Brazil. They flock in Ornithos Atlantic Rainforest during the Brazilian winter.
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