Historical background of rock music
The American hard rock can be traced from the 1940s.Its history is pegged on the development of the rock and roll and country music. The inception of the music has no clear origin but it has grown through the fusing of different types of music. The combination of rock, gospel and African-American music of the time marked the basis of rock music. The most celebrated growth of the American Rock music was experienced during the 1964 invasion of American pop charts by the British pop music. By 1970s the American rock was rating as very flexible after blending with other types of music to give birth to the folk rock. Its influence was also experienced in the jazz music which led to the jazz rock fusion (DeNora, 1999).
The fusion of rock with other types of music formed subgenres of rock music which included soft rock, hard rock and glam rock. With time, rock music diversified to accommodate the growth of American rock to a new genre of rock so as to get acceptance to the pop charts. Rock music had very significantly been influence by the acceptance of the British pop music in America. The British bands crossed American states leaving a compelling need to change the rock music to another genre of music. Rock music had grown to a stage whereby both racial and cultural diversity could not be avoided (Frith, 1979).
It is imperative to note that rock music has undergone evolve through numerous stages. The true evolution of rock music was witnessed in the Early 1960s which was done through the combination of the American and the British bands. The initial rock and was roll was modified by adding hard sounds, heavy guitar and loud vocals. It was during the same period that another type of rock was born which was more deep and loud. This type of rock was a clear contrast of the soft rock. From soft rock to hard rock, to the next level of rock known as garage and surf rock. Different rock groups’ were gaining momentum in joining the hard rock to soft rock. To their surprise the 1970s evolved yet another type of rock known as the glam rock which was famously dubbed power pop. Interestingly, the hard rock which was very popular in America was breed from the 1960s garage rock. Glam rock was later a movement on its own, whereby even the kind of dressing was unique and its proponents were against the wearing of lavish clothes in their shows to portray the trait them being of classless.(Barker & Beezer, 1992).
The preceding type of rock was heavy metal which grew in the 1970 more specifically from bands like Kinks. The new type of rock had numerous distinctions since it had a change of music instruments from the use of electric guitar. The change of the themes from the high school experiences lyrics were changed giving out other themes such as love and politics. It ought to be remembered that rock music owes a debt to the jazz music since the initial instruments of rock music were first borrowed from jazz music. The jazz rock fusion is said to have formed the basis on which psychedelic rock was formed. It was before the psychedelic rock had gained appreciation that progressive rock gained popularity. In the new age of rock music had tremendous advanced and the main aim was to intensify the already existing class of rock to enhance speed and high volume rock music. Meaningful time was invested to a release of raw rock which could touch on the political themes prevalent at the time. It was a foundation for new themes to be incorporated in rock songs. The original rock music was dominated by the white male stars that definitely came up with themes from their surroundings (Hebdige, 1979).
Rock music has through time placed much weight on live performance and maintaining authenticity in their music. This was so to maintain its status and any deviation from the initial rock was greeted with a release of a new type of rock to try to purify it from dilutions. Though it has been almost impossible to draw a line between the original rock and the influence caused by the mainstream rock music, staunch supporters of rock music had maintained that there was a sharp distinction (DeNora, 1999).
The release of punk rock music in1974 in America was a milestone to the growth of rock music. The 1974 growth stretched its influence up to the early 1980s.The garage rock which earned its name by the virtue that it was played in a garage, is said to have given birth to punk music. The literal meaning of punk rock music was worthless .Its ideology was clear distinction from mainstream music. At the same time; sentiments of anti-authoritarian could not be divorced from this type of music. Their music was self recorded and the distribution was done through informal channels. Despite the minimum record sales punk rock gained a very strong underground following leading to its spread world wide. The music was mainly dominated by the youth which was evident in their dressing styles and the rebellious lyrics (Frith, 1979).
In order to access the mainstream market many punk rock bands came up with the New wave. New wave was fighting hard to gain market penetration which was substantially blocked by the rebellious nature of the punk rock. The commercial aspect of new wave was revived and record executives gained interest in the music. The post punk was very popular with major influences from bands such as The Velvet Underground. The post punk was not restricted to American bands but also British bands namely the Gang of four. It has been contended that one of the band in the post punk era was the U2.The band was based in Ireland and was majorly known for having strong political and religious imagery. The success made by the band to was later to be massive making it the biggest band in the world. Post punk rock formed the genesis to the 1980s industrial music whereby a mixture of techniques in sampling strengthening the post industrial music (DeNora, 1999).
The 1980s growth of hard rock music
The music of a certain location helps in analyzing the cultural aspects as well as the political events or ideologies surrounding the society. Such study is called subculture whereby the words of the music are not only the essential tool in understanding the society where the music comes from. The dressing code is equally imperative in knowing the setting and the status of the society. It is evident from the following discussion that the American society was largely dominated by racism in early 1980s. Music can be said to the mirror of any given society. Therefore, rock music is not an exception. The Black race was highly suppressed hence the evolution of 1980s rock had a substantial element of rebellion and anti authority. Though tracing its history from both white and black traditions the performance of hard rock was to express liberal sentiments. The following discussion will endeavor to show the origin of rock music in the 1980s and its impact in the American society. Any society experiencing suppression will always show it in the form of music composed. The 1980s was a pace created during a time when the artists of rock who were not accommodated by the mainstream rock. The alternative rock music was a distinct style whereby harmonization of different styles of music took place. Many of the alterative rock artists were signed by independent records. The advent of the group based guitar rock could not be avoided at this age. Many founders of the alternative rock disassociated themselves from the synthpop rock influence (Macan, 1997).
The 1980s rock ages was graced by the emergence of famous and competent bands such as the Def Leppard.The band was started in 1977, located in Sheffield in the United Kingdom. The band advanced its music at a time when the new wave was at its peak in England. The band became one of the top selling rock bands through out the world. It sold thirty five million albums in America and at the same time selling sixty five million all over the world. The band was composed of students who had met by chance after missing a bus. In the first instance they had named the bad Deaf Leopard but afterwards changed the name to distinguish the band from other punk bands. In 1980 many fans that had followed the bands music religiously were with time being turned away by the spirited effort by the band to appeal to American audience. The release of the song Hello America was very disappointing to many fanatical English fans. The band was not intending to pay attention to the fans opinion since their sales were soaring high (Hebdige, 1979).
Secondly, Van Halen is one of the most outstanding hard rock bands of all time. Its formation dates back in 1972 in Pasadena, California. After releasing their album in 1978 the bad enjoyed a dominant lead in the American charts. The album placed them in position nineteen of the Americans best selling band of all time. The following albums had commercial deterioration. The band mainly focused on hard rock, heavy mental and glam metal (Frith, 1979).
Thirdly, is the Kiss band which gained its prominence in 1970s.Though criticized that they spend a lot of their time on facial decorations. The band was formed in 1973 in New York; America. The band took rock music to another stage through their comic costumes. Through involving the fans the band maintained a selection of the best designs. Their main type of rock was hard rock and heavy metal. In 1983 the band dropped the costumes culture and made their first public appearance in MTV without the costumes (Macan, 1997).
The Impact of hard rock on the American Society
In an analysis to focus on the influence of rock music in the American society, it is worth appreciating the fact that any type of music must achieve clear communication to its audience. The accuracy of achieving that role is very vital in the music context. Though the nature of the music differs substantially when interpretation is desired, the clear hearing of the words is very essential. However, it is very disturbing for a musician to learn that his/her audience doesn’t interpret the music in the rightful context. These defects are cured by the performer taking the music to an extra mile and pouring out his/her emotional for the audience to clearly understand the context. The harmonious agreement created by the musician and the audience is the sole test to measure flow of communication. The youths in these music scenes had unnatural style of dressing and dancing. Many of the facial masks were of animals. One of the Members of the Kiss hard rock group wore a mask of a fox. The animal symbol has been said to suggest a break away from the normal rules. It is note worth that the break away from the cultural rules should not in any way be confused with the lack of rules which is all together very distinct thing. In their treasured costumes they communicated to their listeners by stating the importance of courage (Lusted, 1991).
Many of the alternative rock stars did not achieve a considerable mainstream sale but the substantial impact which was later experienced in 1990s was hatched during the 1980s.By and large rock music of all time has been described as a transmitting vehicle of cultures. The look of their attires used and the facial decorations had formed a development of new fashions among the youth. The experience of the 1980s punk music or otherwise rock music had long coming effects to the society and more specifically the American society. It should be noted that the influence of rock just like any other type of music was irresistible. A given society could not choose to accept hard rock while at the same time resisting its influence (Hebdige, 1979).
The influence of hard rock music was not only felt in America but it was a world wide issue. In Britain it is said that the reception of punk music was a major threat to western civilization. The gross influence experienced by the strength of the rock style was fascinating. The influence are understood when the subculture at the given time is subjected to meaningful interpretation. The rock style was emerging at a period when the effects of the world’s major wars were being felt. Rock music can not be said to have impacted the social setting only but the political outset was equally affected. The effects were achieved in a really hard to understand language since rock music is said to have possessed the internal logic not easy to decipher. The contribution in shaping the political scope by the subcultural groups was finally realized (DeNora, 1999).
The post war period is said to have given birth to a classless youth who had social groups which was famously crowned as the age of leisure pursuits. The flexible way of the subcultural structure was resistance to classes. In the working youth atmosphere it is clear that the issue of forming classes was considered a priority. The said resistance was achieved through having a language, style and fashion distinct from the working parents. The distinct ways of style had been a foundation to the staunch political opposition. It is not surprising from the above analysis to discover the free association between the 1980s youth despite their color. Rock style brought the dressing fashion in a uniform state through using of the same style. The said stage was famously known as the Phantom history. Antagonism in music was cured by bringing on board through rock performances the black and white fans and artist. The comprehending of rock music can not be attained without the study of the subcultures of the rock music. Further, the subcultures are to be analyzed with the style. The connection and the dire need to discuss rock music is that the practical lives enjoyed by the majority of the American citizens had been influenced (Macan, 1997).
The Def Lappard group one of the renowned hard rock groups in America had its traditions in the black music is said to have joined the Teddy boys in opposing the Immigration of Black youths in the United Kingdom. They used the hard rock music to portray their staunch political commitment. The relationship between the blacks and white youth in such circumstances was interpreted to show the exchange of language through rock songs. On the other side, the punks gave unwavering support to the fight against the vice of racism. The mingling of the Blacks and white youths in the same stage was a milestone in achieving a British free racist society (Frith, 1979).
It is in the rock concerts that the role of the women in the subcultures and to further shows how the youth of the post war societies were organized. In the subcultural relations analysis shows a presence of girls in punk shows. It ought to be remembered that way back in 1980s the women rights talked of today were still in their infant stages but through rock music the gap which existed was bridged. The proponents of rock music have all along contended that there is something more than the sound in rock music. Rock’s significance can only be listened in the spirit of the themes articulated. The 1980s fight against racism could not be achieved without the role of rock music. Later reggae music was born which was a key nationalism strategy. The music steered the white youth to be in the same level with the blacks. The white youths found it easy to help the Blacks in the racism fight since they had shared the same Clubs and Discos (Macan, 1997).
It is important to appreciate the fact that hard rock from its inception had been a rebellious music and sometime termed anti-authority. The influence of rock can not entirely be said that it brought racism to an end. However, it is a major factor which created an environment of dialogue between the white and the black youth. There are major critics who have vehemently questioned the classless society formed by youths through rock music. Many have termed such societies as alienation (Frith, 1979).
Many of the hard rock bands were formed by high school teens for instance the Del Lappard who formed the band after a school bus had left before they could catch it. Thereby there is a strong nexus between punk rock and the 1980s high school music movement. Music styles full of historical ideas in schools were fused to bring a fashionable way of rock music. The age of the music composers combined with the rebellious nature of teenagers was a land mark in fostering strong political sentiments. Artistes such as the Kiss used comedy and unique customs which facilitated the use of imagery, a gesture which largely drew the attention of the audience. At this era the perception towards hard rock had considerably changed and for once Hard rock was perceived as a solution not an existed problem. It can not be forgotten that hard rock music was a leisure tool in addition to those other named functions. The focus during this stage was not how the rock music was being used but the purpose of using it. Rock music market grew to an extent that, rock music was no longer for folk consumption but massive production was required (Barker & Beezer, 1992).
The punk style which dominated the hard rock music is said to have passed over their styles to other genres of music and in life generally. The appearance in their shows in boots was a true representation of the working class. The spiky hair and the famous pogo dancing has been said to be a deviation from the mainstream society (Hebdige, 1979).
Different dressing and dancing styles by the rock artistes has been said to form a basis of expression whereby the message is clearly send to the fans and the world. It is achieved through subcultures which are defined as the way oppressed groups not only verbally demand their rights, but also engage in overt acts to show their level of discontentment. Many of the hard rock artistes selected an inherent attribute they hoped to maintain but in the contrast combined it with a contrast of the desired initial attribute. The Kiss rock group in the United States wore an anti-racism head and face mask containing the British identity while the face was of an immigrant. This helped to show some intensity of the subcultures in organized fight on racism (Jones, 2008).
The essence of style in any society is that it has the effect of presenting the viewers of such society with a different outlook. The American society has been known to embrace democracy but the dark days of racism in the early 1980s can not be ignored. It is style that opened the view of the said oppressions. The accuracy of communication in the hard rock has been to trigger different level of emotions and sometimes intellect (Lusted, 1991).
The fact that hard rock had since inception not been seen to support conventional morality had been graced with criticism. The criticism did not target the rock singers but it was also extended to the fanatical supporters. Dating back in 1950s the original rock and roll was said to erode the morals evident in civilization. In British rock music was viewed as antisocial. The birth of progressive rock was at the same time viewed as a forum whereby the youth counter culture aired their grievances and discontentment through music. It can be said that their message to the Government of the day was communicated through Rock music. At the moment the American society was facing the worst political unfairness. The main political issues at the time were to spear heard the civil rights for black Americans. In addition the American society was dissatisfied with the American army involvement in the Vietnam. The move was termed imperialistic in nature and at the same time the society that a lot of the army officers were losing their lives without a defined course to fight for. The exploitative nature of the capitalism society was becoming hard to bear and in the years after the world war, America was trying to spread capitalism aggressively. It was not welcomed by majority of the Americans since the foreign missions were mainly funded through the tax payer’s money. Lot of American resources were being channeled to wars of no benefit to the American society. In the eyes of the government of the day rock music was viewed and interpreted to mean opposition to authority. The basis of rock was not mainly opposition to authority but the prevailing ideology. Rock music has through time been viewed as antagonistic to mainstream or commercial tendencies of many artists. Rock music has with few exceptions shown to portray a very deep commitment to art. The approach of rock music is that art is embraced hence drawing a sharp distinction between the commercial pop music and the original rock music. It is with no doubt, I assert that the derivation of originality from the African American societies gives rock music an element of liberal advocacy. The very evident traits of rock music make it to stand out. Needless to say, creative rock has through time been said to be in its class. Rock music has been rooted in the cultures hence through time it has pointed out the pressing injustices in that society. Rock music is said to have taken cultures of a society in another level by practically legitimizing the cultural norms considered immoral. Contrasted to the pop music which is more appealing to the elites of society, rock music is classless.Infact rock music cuts across all generations and it is not discriminative in nature (Hebdige, 1979).
The status in society is always a stumbling block towards liberalism but the fact that rock music has the appealing character to the lower class in the society it is of help. The material quest has been a tool whereby different music groups have with time moved away from creative rock music to commercial rock music. In Britain such unhealthy competition was said to be the genesis to marginalization. The initial rock music was largely made up of men. The meaning of music has been held not to be found in the inherent design but it growing with criticism. It is in the exchange of claim and counter claim that makes the music graduate from one level to the next (Lusted, 1991).
While a considerable population in American society appreciated the role and the soundness of rock music in the society, to others it was noise. Many stated that since the music was widely dominated by the youth, For instance the Vale Halen, it was an expression of immaturity. The radical revolutionary nature of rock music was opposed by the ruling class since they benefited from the prevailing injustices in the society. It is still contended that, rock music just like any other popular music would do has formed the basis in which a cross section of the society identifies itself with certain living styles. The living styles build on the type of music played and the solidarity gained in the joints that the respective group hangs out. The demand of such music has been engineered and prevailed consistently. The fanatical youth supporters of rock music find it hard to disassociate themselves with the youth even after growing old. That precisely explains why shows of hard rock bands such as the Kiss are filled with old rock fans. The music is said to remind the aged of the powerful, energetic youth days. The comfort enjoyed by the grey haired in such music concerts is sometimes very shocking. What the hard rock music offers is a warm sense of belonging that many other types of music had failed to achieve (O’Hara & Brown, 2006).
Hard rock has been highly praised by many individuals in the industry. It has been argued that it is not a type of music created for ones hobby after the long day work but it is more than that. It his also essential to look into the role of rock music in a predominantly capitalist economy. The influence on the economy which consequently affects the culture is a very key element in gauging the impact of hard rock in the 1980s capitalist American economy. The effects of the heavy metal to create a middle ground between the different demographics can not be ruled out. The targeted audiences did not receive the music just has planned by key individuals in the industry.Infact the effects of such hard metal move was counteracted with a total opposition by the radio stations whereby their music was not played and the albums sold poorly. The results were due to the fact that the 1970 rock industry was dominated by young male white artists who were not appealing to the oppressed black audience. With time the effect was handled by the 1980s emergence of bands which were gender balanced. The heavy metal rock had increasing received all types of audiences (University of Northern Colorado, 1991).
The mainstream, reception of heavy metal hard rock in United States and making about forty percent selling. It has been said that some rigid boundaries have been drawn mainly by the music industry to enhance more sales which led to the 1988 failure of the heavy metal concert. The concert was a disappointment to the fans and key stake holders in the music industry. The event was expected to be the greatest metal concert since big bands such as the Van Halen had attended (Lusted, 1991).
No doubt the 1980s era of rock music has been held as the most outstanding moments when the popular rock music was put to test.Different ways of addressing the style of politics during that age was a sufficient test.However; the politics were well covered by what is famously known as the conscience hard rock which took many critics by surprise. Rock artists in the mid 1980s joined hands and they stretched their outreach to International social issues. The focus of different hard rock bands were mainly concerned with the effects of drought and famine which was at the time killing people in large parts of Africa. The main events organized by the 1980s rock bands were to initiate the desired awareness. They are said to have build strong channels for collecting money for social interventions in different parts of the world. The popular name given to such funds was the Bands Aid. The 1981 detection of AIDS was greeted with many worries but still rock bands were traversing allover the world creating the needed awareness of how the epidemic could be combated. The awareness went past the vocals and funds were raised to help in those campaigns (Jones, 2008).
The Band Aids became profoundly successful in the mid 1980s through what was termed as the rock brotherhood. A new rock out look was eventually initiated through the political consciousness while the cultural movements were created to forge a balance between the factors influencing society and subsequently look for a clear harmony. Deductions drawn from the hard rock music clearly emphasizes the point that music is a symbol of distinct cultural struggle (Jones, 2008).
Alternative rock music has been said to politicize certain issues in the cultural setting it emerges from. In the 1980s Del Leppard band was highly held to release music using feminism sentiments. They would pick a vice such as sexual assault in society and take minutes to analyse a stand against it in their concerts. It can be said that the said campaigns were not more pronounced but they remained evident in their music. The predominant culture of hard rock is that it tried to change the rules of the rock music image though the trait of dialogue could not be avoided. By and large it has been interpreted that it exposed cultural spaces of the time and to a greater extent few elements of political feminism. Rock music artists are said to compose their music without the help of conventional teaching like other types of music. They are praised for their invoking of unconventional effects. Rock music is termed as purer since the musicians sieve the creative part and ignore the conventional influence. Rock music has existed through the strength of its ideology which makes it appeal in a raw way. If not for its primitive simplicity, there are countless doubts whether the message commitment would be the same. Much has said about rock music but the music stands very real (Macan, 1997).
Much of the analysis done on popular music and more specifically the 1980s rock music is to provide an appreciated means of expression by the young people. The youth by the nature of the said stage are naturally rebellious to their parental authority and hence rock music just like any other popular music achieved that trait. For instance Van Halen was extremely rebellious and they strongly denounced the fore founders of rock music (Leyshon, 1998).
The gauging of the effects of the hard rock music would be unfair and at the same time unrealistic if it would center at the positive impacts of the hard rock music. There are numerous effects associated with the emergence of the hard rock music in the American society which later reached the other parts of the world. By the mere fact that music is a communication spread without limitation. Just the same way there are positive attributes associated with hard rock; there are other numerous negatives effects. It should be remembered that rock music since its inception has been an antagonist to the already established norms. There values which before the growing of rock music, where the threads that held the society together. The rebellion of the youth against the parental control was the beginning of rotten morals society. In Britain rock music was said to be a threat to civilization since it violated many values. In its initial stages many radios in the American societies found it hard to play hard rock music (Garofalo, 2008).
No wonder in some places it was termed the catalyst to moral decay. Although the anti hard rock media tendency was finally waived, it remained explosive and only selected, edited lyrics could be played.Infact to motivate acceptance by the greater mainstream society, the had rock artistes had to drop the cursing language evident in their lyrics (Jones, 2008).
In addition, their style of life and the way the hard rock stars presented themselves pioneered the fashionable flamboyant fashions in the society which was hard to maintain. The youth were introduced to a new form of life whereby the mode of dressing mattered considerably. Conflicts between the parents and their youth became the order of the day. The fussing of different groups in the social places for rock entertainment formed potential crime groups. Criminals would camouflage themselves in the said rock groups. In addition, the new dressing fashions were hard to maintain and hence to sustain that life crime was the only option left at the disposal of those youths (Hallam, Cross & Thaut, 2009).
Still evident in the groups was the promotion of drugs consumption. Evidently, the youth who are known to be easily swayed by lifestyles easily adapted to the culture of drinking which they had seen in the clubs. Many of the rock musicians were seen as promoters of alcohol. With time some of the original band members of the Def Lappard had to be replaced due to drinking excessively which deprived them the power to make public performances or even play the instruments. Though rock music was a key element in the struggle towards the blacks fight for civil rights still it was sometimes producing violent action which was negative effects towards the breach of peace in society. Music should, beyond the underlying functions of create hope and new possibilities where they never existed. Instead, the hard rock music has been seen advocating themes such as death made the society feel cursed. The negative sentiments in the rock music turned away many of the potential fans while at the end of the day the rock music finally settles with the initial fans. The protest against the negative impacts of the of the rock music was waged up from all parties of America but the success of such campaigns could not be achieved. The successful fight of the disastrous seeds of alcoholism and drug abuse was always lost since the mainstream holders of the industry were busy profiting from the immorality of the rock music. At the presence of very powerful individuals managing the rock music industry it was not in any way easy to fight the thriving of rock music (Hebdige, 1979).
It had taken substantial time for the rock music to grow from one stage to the next and certainly it could not be wished away at a time when the fanatical supporters were deeply rooted in the music and were feeling that they needed the music which had given them a sense of belonging. The only thing that could be achieved at the time is to improve the social conditions to make sure that few people were recruited to the rock styles. The rooted structures of the 1950s rock music were strongly founded since they gave the fans a sense of belonging. In many circumstances the structures had become part and parcel of the society (Lewes, 2003).
Just the way the positive impacts had exerted influence through out the world, the negative effects took the world by surprise. In Britain the rockers staged a demonstration which was through teaming up with the activist of the Labor unions. The post war subcultures of the day were strengthened by the influential nature of the rock music. Different rock bands felt the need to join in the riots staged by the working unions. In the explosive rebellious from the rock music it was inconceivable to expect the rockers to have a different approach to the demonstrations. The only dangerous thing as asserted by many sociologists is that in a move to define cultural pessimism it has been argued that the economic structures were interwoven in the cultural dominance. It is imperative to remember that the effect of such dominance is that it necessitated a prevailing ideology. The economic cultural ideology which define a subculture were said to make a certain culture popular. In that connection it is very important to note that the capitalism society in the 1980s was driving force behind the change of hard rock underground music to mainstream hard rock (Frith, 1979).
The time was very economically challenging and many of the hard rock bands were making major shifts. These major shifts were extremely contradictory basing on the fact that hard rock had always tried to draw a sharp line between commercial hard rock and the underground hard rock. The affirmed opinion by many of the hard rock artists was that rock music artists could no longer be maintained. The music they once stated was not a money making tool became very popular for making money. However, still hard rock was maintained not to be a music meant for leisure but for consumption of the audience (Miell, 2007).
The all-time role of the media in the conflict between what rock music stands for on one side and what the society demands has been evident in the past years. The media would in many instances enhance that by refusing to play rock music with the explicit language. The limiting role of the media can be said to have enhanced the growth of rock music (Butsch, 1990).
Rock music all over the world has a very rich history. The rock music and more specifically the American hard rock have no specific lineage but the traditional African American music has had a very contributory role in the growth of the rock music. When the world experienced a gross change, rock music would be influenced to change. The style and subculture in relation to rock music has been put across by sociologists to depict the exact impacts of rock music scene to the American society. The 1980s is a moment in the history of the American society known to be a trying moment when the forces of cold war were at the peak. At the given moment the black Americans were rebelling against the white’s dominance of the American institution. Further, the civil rights advocacy for the black people was at its best. Such war would have remained if rock music did not play the role bringing both black and white fans in the same arena hence supporting tolerance and solidarity.
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