The Adult Recession & Unemployment
Unemployment remains one of the most debated issues in human history. The labor force of any country is defined as the number of the employed and the unemployed. The ratio between the two determines the success of the economy of such a country in absorbing its human capital for gainful employment. Unemployment is defined by the International Labor Organization as the situation of people remaining jobless even after actively seeking within duration of four weeks. Unemployment negatively impacts on many involved parties. This paper will discuss the effects of unemployment on adults and focus on recommendations that could be used to address and improve the situation.
Effects of Unemployment on Adults
Unemployment affects adult individuals in many ways. It is a known fact that employment is a source of income for many adults and thus when an adult is rendered jobless; he/she suffers immensely in terms of economic ability. The financial difficulty arising may force one to undergo psychosocial hardships in an effort to satisfy personal demands or those of their dependents. Psychology experts claim that adults who find themselves unemployed experience traumatic reactions such as shock manifested through disorientation and disbelief. They then enter a state of denial and false optimism in which they seek employment opportunities vigorously with the conviction that the unemployment phase is only temporary. When the employment opportunity becomes unavailable, the unemployed adult enters a phase of anxiety and stress. This is followed by a state of resignation and the individual voluntarily accepts the situation. This psychological realignment may be detrimental to an individual’s overall wellbeing (Havitz, Morden&Samdahl, 2004).
Unemployment among adults is associated with increased cases of mental and physical problems leading to deterioration in health standards. This may have an impact on the family relationships and increased mortality rates. Studies indicate that adults with stable employment have higher rates of good mental health, high life satisfaction, enhanced marital and family satisfaction and generally good bodily health as opposed to the unemployed individuals. It is common to find increased cases of depression, anxiety and low self esteem which results in low subjective well being. Reduced life expectancy has been associated with unemployment. Surveys carried in 1970s indicated a fifty percent to a hundred percent rise in the rate of mortality among male employees who had been displaced from work in the previous years. Unemployed adults display poor health holding other demographic factors constant according to many studies. The same has been found among underpaid employees, a factor psychoanalysts associate with the low self esteem created in the working environment.
Unemployment impacts negatively on the well being of many spouses. The stress associated with the inability to satisfy various needs of the spouse due to economic downturn results in increased cases of relationship instability. According to research in many countries following economic recession, many parents who were experiencing financial challenges became irritable, explosive and episodes of tension. The parents were reported to have attitudinal changes affecting their parenthood roles to a great extent. The adults with such tendencies claim experts can create a behavioral change in their children with boys reported to become temperamental, moody and irritable while the girls demonstrate feelings of inadequacy and become hypersensitive. Single mothers who lose their jobs or are unemployed express depression symptoms associated with the feeling of inadequacy. They may then their anger to the children creating a cycle of depression in the family (Kim, 2010).
Recommendations to Address and Improve the Situation
To address the problem of unemployment among adults several measures can be adopted. These include drafting of suitable monetary policies that are geared toward enabling the people embrace a saving and investing culture. This will ensure that the employed do not suffer the above mentioned challenges if unemployment arises as they will have something to fall back to. Numerous surveys in different parts of the world indicate that majority of working class have poor saving and investing habits. With the relevant policies, it is thus possible to cultivate such a culture within a nation’s workforce. Diversification of job opportunities is another remedy that has been found to be effective in alleviating the challenge of unemployment. Increasing productivity in key economic sectors and availing varied training opportunities to the populace means that more people will have skills in different areas so that in case of a downturn in some sectors, the number of the employed will still remain relatively high(Longhi, Nijkamp&Traistaru, 2005).
Promoting attitudinal adjustment among the adults is necessary so that the tendency of many to seek white collar jobs and disregard self-employment and other forms of employment that may be considered lowly is necessary. This could be enhanced further by the government increasing access to credit facilities among its subjects to encourage entrepreneurial culture which would greatly reduce the rate of unemployment. The problem of unemployment can be effectively overcome through strategies such as promoting use of locally processed products within country of origin. The increased consumption rate arising will be aboost to the local economy in terms of creating increased job opportunities. A strong local economy is also essential to create more employment opportunities (Tomlinson, 2001).
The importance of the infrastructure can not be under estimated in terms of creating job opportunities. With an elaborate transport and communication system, a country enhances transport of goods and services to the market. This in turn facilitates rapid wealth creation among the people resulting in increased employment opportunities. Good governance is integral in creating an enabling environment for job creation. Institutions of government responsible for the welfare of the people must ensure that corruption and misappropriation of funds is prevented by all means. This ensures that resources allocated for the wellbeing of the general population including matters of employment are not interfered with. Insecurity is a product of poor governance and has been associated with reducing the rate of employment since it affects the backbone of a country’s economy. Many countries in Africa that are well endowed with resources still record high rates of unemployment due to political instability that discourages both local and foreign investments (Tomlinson, 2001).
The impact of unemployment on adults remains a major challenge in many countries in the world. From youths to the almost retiring, the possibility of losing a job is ever more imminent nowadays. This is partly due to the economic challenges being experienced all over the world. The capitalistic nature of world markets has led to unscrupulous business practices and widespread corruption that continues to negatively impact on world economies. The problems can however be overcome by adopting well defined strategies such as outlined above. At the individual level, the person can overcome challenges associated with unemployment by remaining positive despite economic hardships or lay offs from work. This helps in overcoming psychological, mental and physical challenges closely associated with unemployment among many adults.