Note that the inflammatory response is mentioned in the article. Infections from pathogens can also lead to inflammation. The hallmark of the innate immune response is inflammation. Inflammation is any activity that causes tissue damage such as getting a cut in your skin or stubbing a toe. The adaptive immune response is more specific. The body is able to “learn” how to respond to invaders during the adaptive response and reactive rapidly once it encounters the same invader twice. Try the following tutorial on immune defenses from the University of Arizona to gain a better understanding of how these two types of immunities defend out body.
Inflammation has four key characteristics: heat, redness, pain, and swelling. The release of damaged cellular contents into the site of injury is enough to stimulate the response. The inflammatory reaction brings in phagocytic cells (like macrophages) to the damaged area to clear away cellular debris and prepare the site for repair. See the image below which summarizes the inflammatory response:
Ketchum, H. & Bright, E. Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response by OpenStax. Accessed on August 9, 2016 at https://cnx.org/contents/Q5uuq7jF@2/OU-Human-Physiology-Barrier-De
Paragraph 1: PTSD and the Complement System
Now compare the findings mentioned in the Dartmouth article to the findings in this study on Stress and Anxiety. Address the following questions:
1.How did these articles discuss the role of B and T cells in the immune response to stress?
2.What did each article (“The Physiology of Stress” from Module 2 mentioned above and the “Stress and Anxiety” link) find about the relationship between stress and inflammation?
Paragraph 2: Inflammatory
Response and the Brain
Finally, read The Consequences of the Inflamed Brain and draw connections between the inflammatory response and brain function and behavior. How are the central nervous system and the immune system interconnected? How does the inflammatory response affect mood and behavior?
Which component of the nervous system reacts to an infection? What are the implications for mood and behavior if the inflammatory response is prolonged? What types of things might cause the inflammatory response to become prolonged or exaggerated?
Paragraph 3: Conclusions
To complete this assignment, discuss the overall influence of stress on the immune system and mental functioning (including potential links to depression).
You are provided with many scholarly references to complete this assignment. Complete your assignment addressing the paragraph questions above in essay format. Include a References section in APA format that lists these and any additional sources you used. Use the paragraph headings above as subtitles for each section you address in your paper. For any additional research you are required to do to complete your assignment, please use scholarly references such as a peer-reviewed journal article or a government-sponsored or university-sponsored website. As you read through your sources, take notes from them and then write your paper in your own words, describing what you have learned from your research. Direct quotes should be limited and must be designated by quotation marks. Paraphrased ideas must give credit to the original author, for example (Murray, 2014). Direct copying from “homework help” websites will not receive credit.
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