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The Importance of Deductive Reasoning

Read the arguments in the Associate Level Material: Deductive Reasoning located on your student website.
Address the following arguments in a 350- to 500-word response:

Why is it important to understand what is known prior to making a decision?
What is the role of deductive reasoning in the decision making process?
How does the process of deductive reasoning aid in understanding an argument?

Deductive Reasoning
Argument 1
Trainer or Cleaner
John is the owner of a gym with approximately five trainers on his payroll. Only a few of those trainers are considered full-time employees. Chris, one of these full-time personal trainers, is well liked by his clients and he consistently has a full schedule. Between clients and even before this gym opens, Chris tries to make sure the gym is clean. He washes down equipment, cleans bathrooms, and ensures the general appearance of magazine baskets looks good. As a full-time trainer; however, Chris has his hands full and after months of pitching in and working to keep the gym clean, he’s frustrated. He discovers his boss, John, no longer cleans because he assumes Chris will. Chris feels taken advantage of and wants John to recognize his role as a trainer first. He also wants John to consider the extra work cleaning involves. He is arguing for a raise or at least, special compensation for the cleaning should he continue it. For now, though, he is “on strike” from cleaning. He presents his findings to John who is not yet ready to compromise.
Argument 2
Buying a Car
Mark and Sally are a young, married couple considering the purchase of a new car. Mark feels his 10-year-old, four-door sedan is still working fine and there is no need to spend more money. Sally, who is 5 months pregnant, believes that the couple should invest in something newer and safer for their future children. Sally argues that the new car will be an investment for the future. Mark agrees to look but wants Sally to agree to lease a car first. Sally wants to invest in the future and argues that the long-term cost of a new vehicle will be less than leasing. She also argues that a lease will keep the couple from selling the vehicle should it not meet the family’s needs. Based on these factors, Sally wants to purchase a nice roomy van with automatic doors and extra safety features. Mark; however, eyes a new jeep that would accommodate a baby without giving up his young, carefree style. Though Mark is anxious to have the car of his dreams, he also knows that money is a factor. Mark and Sally have much to discuss to ensure they make the right purchase. Consider the factors that will help them make a decision as you address the questions in the assignment.
Argument 3
Buying a Home Versus Renting an Apartment
In today’s economy, the risk of home ownership can be considered too much for the average buyer; however, several reasons exist to choose a home over a rental. First, homeowners are allowed to deduct mortgage interest from their income taxes. A future sale of the house can also result in capital gains. Then, because interest rates are at, what is often labeled, an historic low, buyers can borrow money at a lower cost. This also leads to a lower money payment.
Aside from the financial advantages, buying a home can lead to freedom from the rules that plague apartment renters. Decorating a house, landscaping the lawn, and making changes are all possibilities. Privacy is also a factor, as homeowners do not have to worry about sharing common space with neighbors. Finally, the purchase of a home leads to a feeling of permanence. Homeowners do not need to worry about rental agreements or lease issues.
Argument 4
Public Versus Private School
Continual debates exist over whether to send a child to public or private school. Many issues are involved leading to perhaps a more difficult decision than first envisioned. Factors begin with the cost of tuition. The average taxpayer is helping to pay for public schools through their taxes. Because this is already being done, does the taxpayer also want to pay for an additional tuition? If money is not an issue, the family must look at the admission rates. Whereas public school is open to all, many private schools have specific admission requirements. Adding to this is the right of that private school to be selective with the enrollment and even, the expelling of students.
Class size is certainly a factor. At a private school, the student will have more opportunity to engage the teacher and have learning individualized. Safety, location, and overall privacy are other benefits to private school education.
In terms of education itself, because private schools are not tied to the government, they are not required to offer special education to those who may need it. Public schools not only offer this special education, they also make available special programs, academic and health-related programs and also, a free or reduced lunch program.
Finally, when looking at the debate, the student must be considered. How will he or she feel about the choice? Will the student be comfortable in the chosen environment?
When making this decision you will note a correct answer for whether private or public school education is best is not to be found. The best step to take is to choose what is right for you and your student. In addition, it will be important to research and assess all the information available from cost to statistics as well as to visit each school to learn more. Only after such research is done will an informed decision be made.
Argument 5
To Cheat or Not to Cheat
Jenna is currently struggling in her Critical Thinking class. Outside of school, she is also struggling with personal issues, including an ill parent. She meets an old friend, Cyndi, who has already taken the course and suggests that Jenna can pass the course just by using some of the homework help sites on the Internet. Jenna knows that she has little time left to study but has always been committed to ensuring her work does not violate the academic honesty code of conduct. The two friends begin a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of cheating. Cyndi tells her it’s easy and people cheat all the time. She argues that cheating doesn’t make her any less of a person. “There are just those times when you need the extra help.” Even though Jenna knows it was easy for Cyndi, she can’t help but think of how the cheating will eventually hurt Cyndi. Jenna knows how she would be uncomfortable knowing that the work she submitted was not her own. She would feel guilty and not be able to face her parents. Still, she tells Cyndi she will think about it rather than argue further with her friend who she knows will not change her mind.

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