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Using TWO criminological perspectives dealt with in the distance learning materials on moodle (eg classicism, positivism, any of the social theories, anti criminologies or radical criminologies) consider their usefulness or otherwise in explaining ONE of the three
following activities:

Using ecstasy

iii. Corporate fraud
Essay Guidance
The objective of this task is for you to demonstrate your understanding of the chosen perspectives (not the offence). This will require an examination of the principles associated with the chosen criminological perspective. Your aim should therefore be to review and consider the applicability (or otherwise since they may not be that useful and it will be for you to explain this!) of each perspective identified to either one of the offences in directing how it may/may not help our understanding of the causes for that offence.
The object of the question is to demonstrate an understanding of the key principles associated with the chosen criminological perspective. Consequently it is equally acceptable to explain how the chosen theory may not be useful in explaining the chosen offence just as much as how it might be useful.
There is therefore no need to research or offer lengthy (if any) comment on the particular offence itself since the unit and this essay is primarily concerned with offering an examination of the key principles and advocates of the selected theories (not the offence).
Your essay introduction should therefore clearly state which two theories are to be addressed in the essay. This may involve you identifying key writers/theorists associated with the chosen theory and what the main principles/arguments associated with the theory that are to be expanded upon in your essay. You only need to briefly identify which offence will be considered in relation to the selected theories.
Crime is an issue that discuss in every day’s news, media reports and parliamentary debates. Criminal meaning is dependent on culture, social and historical factors. Theories are attempted to explain how and why the criminal commit crimes or deviant acts. The main key concepts of theories are useful for helping understand the criminal justice system and explain the world around us, however, it can be used for good or bad way (Ronald, 2013). Furthermore, theories must be correct or true, in the other word, legitimacy. In this essay will discuss two types of theory and connect them with a robbery offence. Robbery is an act that someone steals however; it can be by intimidation and force. Robbery divided into five parts, street robbery or mugging, robberies of small business, less sophisticated commercial robberies, violent personal robberies such as in home and professionally planned commercial robberies.
Labelling theory is a name that given to describe a group of ideas in a word or short phrase. Labelling theory started in the late 1960s in America, it changed thinking and looking at things in a different ways that can be overturned the old ideas and lead to new ways of thinking. The second theory is moral reasoning theory which made us understand that morality starts from early ages and then change and develop by several factors. It can be change in negative or positive way depends on each stage of the individual moral development. Moral reasoning observes into physical and psychological development of the individual and the effect of the surrounding environment specially parents and peers.
Labelling theory is concerned to understand the role of social reaction and the subjective meaning of criminal and deviant behaviour of the person who involved in it. (Becker,1963) social groups put deviance by making the rules and applying them to some people and labelling them as strangers. From his point of view, deviance is not an act that people commits however, it is a result of the application by other people of rules and sanctions to offenders. Labelling theory focus on three important sections, first of all, why and how some acts defined as a criminal or deviant while others do not. Criminal or deviance acts are an act that some people do something illegally which can be punished by the law (Jones, 2013). Deviant acts are divided into two parts, formal and informal. Formal deviance relates to criminal acts, it send offenders to investigate, judge and may go to jail. Acts like robbery or burglary considered as formal deviance or criminal behaviour because it assaults and harms the law. Informal deviance is only against social norms, it is an act that can not cause any serious harm to the victims such as talking by phone loudly in public.
Second, it is known that people are more attracting to deviant, criminal and stigmatising labels than others. People who did not do a crime or a deviant behaviour do not define as criminals. However, people who do a crime or deviant behaviour defined as criminals. Some reasons that make some people are doing a deviant behaviour or make them a criminal are for example poor. Jeffrey Reiman’s shows that poor people generally commit crime such as robbery, burglary, assault and so on. However, poor people cannot have the chance to commit antitrust violation or industrial safety. “The rich get richer and the poor get prison” says Reiman’s. The psychological state of people is negatively or positively effect on their behaviour, some people have little or no control when they feel angry or grumpy which lead them to do deviant behaviour. Some people are socialised by family and friends against committing deviant acts (Jones, 2013).
Third, evaluate the experience of being labelled for the receiver of the label. Primary deviance is a deduction that made from society to an individual’s character (O’Brien and Yar, 2008). Primary deviance includes some little deviant acts that everyone does once or twice such as not doing a homework or hooky from school. This behaviour has a few effects on the person’s self-concept and a few reactions on the others. Furthermore, secondary deviance is when a person usually does illegal acts that can make lots of harms and lead the others to assign a label for him/her. People who do a secondary deviance will face a strong reaction from society and may be excluded from certain social groups. For example, others would likely discuss the past of any one who is labelled a ‘thief’ and they might say and defame as ‘he/she was always thief, stranger, or any bad label. Even if this person was nothing like what the others say, and unfortunately the label will be on him/her to the long-term.
Kohlberg was the first who started this moral reasoning theory on child development and identify the different stages of children and what they have reached in their childhood. He has divided the moral reasoning theory into three levels and each level contains two stages. Level one is preconvention reasoning/morality which about the role and the social expectation and how it may externally change child or individual. First stage ‘Obedience and Punishment Orientation’ is based on avoiding the child or the individual being punished, if the person punished they must have done wrong action. Furthermore, the stage based on understands complying authority figures. Second stage ‘Individualism and Exchange’ is based on egocentric, the child or the individual identify that own needs is not just one right that is toward by authority figures. In another ward, it is an act of giving a thing to a person and receiving another, perceived balance of incentive and retribution. Level two is convictional reasoning which about adults and adolescents have internalised the moral rules and expectation of valued society role models. Stage three ‘Good Interpersonal Relationships’ is resolved by other’s needs, in order to do a good thing to be seen a good person to the others. Stage four ‘Maintaining the Social Order’ is keeping and maintaining rules and laws in order for the society to avoid guilt and wrong doing. Finally, level three is post-conventional reasoning which based on self-chosen principles and universal moral principles. According to Kohlberg, most people take their ethical principles from people around them and the minority take their values from their own self. Fifth stage ‘Social Contract and Individual Rights’ is supported by an understanding a contract between individual and society’s law and roles. However, society’s laws can be broken under any certain circumstance. Stage sixth ‘universal principles’ people at this stage determined by self-chosen ethical principles which may or may not fit the society’s laws. (Burke,2004)
To conclude this essay, it has focused on two criminal theories which are labelling and moral reasoning and connecting with a robbery offence. Robbery is an example of criminal or deviant behaviour, it is causes injury to society or/and people and furthermore it is violation the law. Jeffrey Reiman’s showed that some people who commit crime like robbery may be poor people. However, they cannot commit any other crime like antitrust violation for example. Some individuals cannot hold themselves when they get angry or upset which can make them do any crazy deviant action such as robbery or burglary. Labelling theory in shortcut is when someone does a thing and the others label a name to him/her. For example if someone stole, others will label him/her as a thief even if this person repented, and the label will be hold on to him/her long time. In reasoning moral theory, some people are copying their behaviour from others even if it good or bad, in the same time others development their behaviour by themselves. So, if there is lots of thieves in some place that will affect others. Everyone in every place must be respect the law of his/her country to minimise number of crime, criminal and to live in peace. However, everyone does not respect the law by making deviant behaviour such as robbery must be face judge.
References list:
Burke, R. H. (2004). An introduction to criminological theory (4th ed.). Cullompton, Devon, UK: Routledge.
Carrabine, E. (2009). Criminology: A sociological introduction (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
Newburn, T. (2007). Criminology (2nd ed.). Cullompton: Willan Pub.
O’Brien, M., & Yar, M. (2008). Criminology: The key concepts. London: Routledge.
Watts, R., Bessant, J., & Hil, R. (2008). International criminology: A critical introduction. London: Routledge.
Grant, C. (2002). Theories of crime and punishment. Harlow, England: Longman.
McLeod, S. (2013). Kohlberg – Moral Development | Simply Psychology. Retrieved February 20, 2016, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/kohlberg.html
Ronald L. (2013). Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, Application. Retrieved February 19, 2016, from http://global.oup.com/us/companion.websites/9780199844487/guide1/study_guide.pdf
Sentencing Guidelines Secretariat, (2006). Robbery. Retrieved February 15, 2016, from http://www.sentencingcouncil.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/web_robbery-guidelines.pdf

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