Negotiation is an art and a science aimed at securing agreements between two or more parties who are interdependent and who are seeking to maximize their outcomes.
Students are required to complete a guide for international managers which addresses the following statements:
“Business and workplace negotiations are increasingly recognized as a critical component of leadership and management competency , and crucial to the implementation of business strategies in diverse contexts” (T.J.Seng and E.Lim,2004)
In the light of this statement, critically Discuss how proficiency in intercultural problem-solving and negotiations can be increased so that individuals and groups from diverse backgrounds can work effectively together in multicultural situations.
In answering this question ,draw on examples from different national cultures and to focus particularly on two cultures such as Germany and Italy .
-Your guide should be illustrated with concrete and authentic examples. These examples may be from published accounts, scholarly literature or from your experience.
-Reference must be made to academic theories and literature and you should reference at least 5 scholarly articles.
-you need to include an introduction in which you explain the perspective from which the guide is written, for example :
-it may be written from the perspective of a company based in one country which needs to prepare its managers to negotiate with buyers, suppliers or customers from other countries.
-Alternatively ,it may be written from the perspective of company managers who are going to be negotiating with workers in another country .
– The guide must include a discussion of the national cultural issues involved in cross-cultural negotiations .
-Reference should be made to cross-cultural aspects of issues such as :
Efficient trade-offs/win-win, win-lose situations
Dealing with uncertainty
Dealing with value and information asymmetries
Promises and threats
Individual vs. group interests
Inducing cooperative behavior
Trust and sharing
Verbal and non-verbal communication
Time and space
Forms of power
Approaches to handling conflict
Indicative reading list – latest editions of:
Adler, Nancy J. International dimensions of organisational behaviour (South-Western College)
Fisher R and Ury W Getting to yes (Houghton Mifflin)
Fisher, G. International negotiations: a cross-cultural perspective (Chicago: Inter cultural press)
Gannon, MJ & Newman, KL (eds.), Handbook of Cross-Cultural Management, Blackwell
Guirdham, M. Interpersonal Skills At Work, Prentice Hall
Harzing, A & Van Ruysseveldt, J (eds) , International Human Resource Management, Sage
Hofstede G Cultures and organisations: software of the mind (McGraw Hill)
Hofstede, G. Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviours, institutions and organizations across nations, Sage
Articles from selected journals such as
Academy of Management Journal
Administrative Science Quarterly
Advances in International Management
California Management Review
Colombia Journal of World Business
International Journal of Intercultural Relations
Journal of International Business
Journal of Marketing
Sloan Management Review
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