Answer the questions in the boxes.
The Douglas Bag Procedure
In 1911 Claude Douglas devised a technique of collecting a patient’s exhaled air for analysis. This is now commonly known as the ‘Douglas Bag’ technique and is used mainly to assess VO2, despite a hundred years since its implementation into scientific thinking it is still often argued to be the gold standard measure.
Q1: With the introduction of newer and more technologically advanced methods of measuring oxygen consumption during exercise, provide a brief overview of the development of equipment and offer a critical argument for what method you argue as the gold standard.
Indepth reply to the answer and to include references throughout.
Estimate 700 words with 10 references
Indirect Measurement of Energy Substrates:
The Respiratory Exchange Ratio
Of the various nutrients we eat, it is only carbohydrates, fats and to a lesser extent proteins that yield energy (in the form of Adenosine Triphosphate or ATP). Under normal conditions (an adequate nutrient supply), fuel for metabolic processes at rest and during exercise are limited to carbohydrates and fats. The percentage contribution of these substrates in energy metabolism is usually assessed by the determination of the ratio of the volume of Carbon Dioxide (VCO2) measurements of which are obtained during steady state conditions. This ratio is known as the Respiratory Exchange Ratio and reflects VCO2:VO2 at the level of the pulmonary system (VCO2:VO2 at the level of the cell is termed Respiratory Quotient or RQ). An RER of 0.7 indicates that fats are the principle substrate while an RER of 1 indicates that carbohydrates are the principle substrate (Table 1).
The purpose of this laboratory practical is three fold,
i) to introduce the concept of gas analysis
ii) to examine the influence of exercise intensity of RER
iii) to identify the principle substrates utilised at differing intensities of exercise.
Monark cycle ergometer
Servomex gas analyser
Douglas bag and valves
The subject is seated on a suitably adjusted cycle ergometer and allowed to sit quietly for 5 minutes. During the final 1 minute, expired air is collected in a Douglas bag. Following collection of the expired air, it is measured for percentage O2, percentage CO2 and total volume (the method for doing this will be explained to you by your demonstrator). The data is entered into table 2 below.
This is repeated with the subject exercising at an intensity of 60-Watts (light exercise).
This is repeated with the subject exercising at 120-Watts (medium/heavy exercise).
Table 2. Participant is a male (mouth piece was inserted 30 seconds before sample.
The data from table 2 together with relative humidity, barometric pressure and the room temperature should be entered into the Gascalc software to calculate VO2, VCO2 and RER and then entered into table 3 below.
Plot a bar chart of VO2, VCO2 and RER against workload and import these into the space below using appropriate figure legends.
Q1: Describe what changes you observe in your bar charts in VO2, VCO2 and RER at rest and during exercise at intensities of 60 and 120 Watts and explain the relationship between exercise intensity and substrate utilization.
WHAT CHANGES YOU OBSERVE FROM THE BAR CHART?
WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXERCISE INTENSITY AND SUBSTRATE UTILIZIATION?
400 WORDS WITH 5 REFERENCES
Q2: Theoretically the maximum value for the RER is 1. Explain why the value goes above 1 during high intensity exercise.
200 words 3 refs
Q3: RER is typically a “non-protein RER”. What does this mean and why is it inaccurate?
200 words 5 ref
Powers, S K, Howley E H (2012). Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance. McGraw-Hill (8th edition). .
McArdle W D, Katch F I & Katch V L (2009). Exercise Physiology. Nutrition, Energy And Human Performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
YOU CAN ALSO PLACE OTHER SIMILAR ORDERS ON OUR WEBSITE AND GET AMAZING DISCOUNTS!!!
Our Service Charter
Excellent Quality / 100% Plagiarism-FreeWe employ a number of measures to ensure top quality essays. The papers go through a system of quality control prior to delivery. We run plagiarism checks on each paper to ensure that they will be 100% plagiarism-free. So, only clean copies hit customers’ emails. We also never resell the papers completed by our writers. So, once it is checked using a plagiarism checker, the paper will be unique. Speaking of the academic writing standards, we will stick to the assignment brief given by the customer and assign the perfect writer. By saying “the perfect writer” we mean the one having an academic degree in the customer’s study field and positive feedback from other customers.
Free RevisionsWe keep the quality bar of all papers high. But in case you need some extra brilliance to the paper, here’s what to do. First of all, you can choose a top writer. It means that we will assign an expert with a degree in your subject. And secondly, you can rely on our editing services. Our editors will revise your papers, checking whether or not they comply with high standards of academic writing. In addition, editing entails adjusting content if it’s off the topic, adding more sources, refining the language style, and making sure the referencing style is followed.
Confidentiality / 100% No DisclosureWe make sure that clients’ personal data remains confidential and is not exploited for any purposes beyond those related to our services. We only ask you to provide us with the information that is required to produce the paper according to your writing needs. Please note that the payment info is protected as well. Feel free to refer to the support team for more information about our payment methods. The fact that you used our service is kept secret due to the advanced security standards. So, you can be sure that no one will find out that you got a paper from our writing service.
Money Back GuaranteeIf the writer doesn’t address all the questions on your assignment brief or the delivered paper appears to be off the topic, you can ask for a refund. Or, if it is applicable, you can opt in for free revision within 14-30 days, depending on your paper’s length. The revision or refund request should be sent within 14 days after delivery. The customer gets 100% money-back in case they haven't downloaded the paper. All approved refunds will be returned to the customer’s credit card or Bonus Balance in a form of store credit. Take a note that we will send an extra compensation if the customers goes with a store credit.
24/7 Customer SupportWe have a support team working 24/7 ready to give your issue concerning the order their immediate attention. If you have any questions about the ordering process, communication with the writer, payment options, feel free to join live chat. Be sure to get a fast response. They can also give you the exact price quote, taking into account the timing, desired academic level of the paper, and the number of pages.