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Click & Clunk (CSR)

Definition of the strategy
According to Zainol Abidin and Riswanto (2012), reading strategies are one of the essential factors to gain success in academics. Why?

They help students with comprehension.
They enhance the coherent mental representation and understanding of various texts.

Therefore, for students with disabilities, it is essential to incorporate reading strategies to improve understanding.
Description of the Strategy
What is CSR?
Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is a strategy designed by Klinger and Vaughn which utilizes a combination of Reciprocal Teaching and Cooperative Learning. It encompasses four strategies:

The Preview stratagem
Click & Clunk approach
Get the Gist plan
The Wrap Up plan

What is Click & Clunk?

Click & Clunk allows self-monitoring and helps students control comprehension of words, ideas, and concepts.
It improves reading skills in students who have learning disabilities and for those who face possibility of acquiring reading difficulties (Zainol Abidin & Riswanto, 2012).

Target Population
A diverse array of studies demonstrates that the Click & Clunk strategies can be implemented across different age groups: pupils from the fourth to the eighth grades. The results demonstrated that the method is effective in enhancing comprehension (Swanson et al., 2011).
Note: This is the ideal target population to apply this technique. More points about how the target population is assimilated into the program are mentioned in the specific example.
Content and Materials Needed
In this method, students click and clunk while reading subjects such as English. The click aspect refers to parts of the text that a reader understands.

When a student encounters words and concepts that appear to be challenging, then clunk is applied because comprehension is impeded. For example, when the meaning of a word is obscured it is referred to as a clunk. Such strategies are important because a majority of the students with learning and reading difficulties have a challenge monitoring their level of understanding (Zainol Abidin & Riswanto, 2012).
Upon identification of clunks, an instructor incorporates fix-up strategies which students can use to understand the clunks. According to Mendieta, Múnera, Olmos, Onatra, Pérez and Rojas (2013), the strategies include:

Rereading sentences to identify key ideas to enhance understanding.
Rereading sentences found to be in the clunk category together with their preceding and following sentences.

Identifying prefixes or suffixes, and separating words to identify smaller words.

According to Decoda Literacy Solutions (2015), some of the materials needed include:


The strategy enables students to enhance conceptual learning through:

Techniques that improve understanding capabilities and memory.
Increasing student involvement due to the collaborative efforts implemented (Mendieta et al., 2013).
The approach also provokes thinking in the process of reading. In combination with fix-up strategies, students improve comprehension (Decoda Literacy Solutions, 2015).

Specific Example
According to Decoda Literacy Solutions (2015), the method can be applied in understanding passages in English as follows:

One can write several sentences on the board and include foreign words as well as nonsense words. For classes with higher understanding, one can write a short passage.
Afterwards, the instructor states aloud that they are about to try a new method: the click and clunk strategy.
The instructor then informs students that they should click when they encounter familiar words and clunk when the words are unfamiliar. In addition, he or she should mention that the clunk signals help students know that a sentence or word does not make sense and thus should be reread.
To handle passage clunks, the instructor can then write the text on the board and move his or her finger under different words asking the class if the items are clicks or clunks and the reason why they do not make sense. Moreover, the teacher can state that knowing all the words does not necessarily imply that one can understand the text. .
Then, the instructor can explain the reasoning behind the strategy, and after a day or two, the instructor can revisit the approach using a more difficult text. At this stage, the students can work in pairs without teacher intervention, but strong students should be encouraged to help weak ones.
Eventually, the instructor can revisit clunks and apply fix-up strategies.

Technology Integration
In a specific analysis, scholars designed a version of CSR that could be used on the computer. It was applied on students ranging from the sixth to the eighth grade and the results showed that the computer adapted version enhanced understanding (Swanson et al., 2011). Such examples demonstrate the incorporation of technology in CSR.
Decoda Literacy Solutions (2015). Strategies for teaching reading. Decoda. Retrieved from http://decoda.ca/wp-content/uploads/Strategies-for-Teaching-Reading-Final.pdf
Mendieta, J., Múnera, L., Olmos, T., Onatra, C., Pérez, P., & Rojas, E. (2013). Fostering reading comprehension and self-directed learning in a collaborative strategic reading (CSR) setting. University de La Sabana. Retrieved from http://intellectum.unisabana.edu.co/bitstream/handle/10818/12250/Libardo%20M%C3%BAnera%20(tesis).pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Swanson, E., Mohammed, S. S., Boardman, A. G., Vaughn, S., Klingner, J., Roberts, G., … & Solis, M. (2011). The effects of collaborative strategic reading instruction on the reading comprehension of middle school students: Year 2 replication. Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness. Retrieved from https://www.sree.org/conferences/2011/program/downloads/abstracts/94.pdf
Zainol Abidin, M. J., & Riswanto, R. (2012). Collaborative strategic reading (CSR) within cognitive and metacognitive strategies perspectives. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(1), 61-70.

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