Measurement of user or customer satisfaction has interested manufacturers of products and service providers because it informs on the quality of product or service. In addition, such measurement facilitates product and service improvement so that they can serve the needs of their clientele in a more satisfactory manner and even exceed customer expectations. Therefore, an accurate, comprehensive, valid and reliable measurement instrument is imperative to continued profitability and performance of business enterprises. The ensuing report is a critical review of a peer-reviewed article authored by Daisy Seng, Ly Fie Sugianto and Carla Wilkin and published in the Australasian Conference on Information Systems journal in 2016. Since the article focuses on the measurement of the satisfaction of users of mobile portals and introduces an innovative measurement instrument called instrument mobile portal user satisfaction (iMPUS), the report reviews the reliability and validity tests performed on the measurement instrument and the new knowledge that has been generated in the area of satisfaction measurement in the mobile portal context. To facilitate this review, clarity has been provided for the key terms used in the article and in the review as well. The first key term of interest is mobile portal, which is this case, has been formulated to mean a personalized and customized user interface of mobile devices that enables its users to access and expansive and rich environment of data-applications seamlessly. The second key term is user satisfaction in the context of mobile portals, which in this context, is construed to mean the overall affective attitude towards the mobile portal of the user that encompasses both the hardware and software aspects of the smart mobile device. Indeed, a concise understanding of these terms facilitated the development of a comprehensive research methodology that utilized rigorous statistical tests.
To this end, the report confined its interrogation to the methodology employed in ascertaining the validity and reliability of iMPUS and how this instrument has been modified to serve the mobile portal context. In addition, the manner in which iMPUS improves user satisfaction measurements and the implications to industry that this instrument portends are discussed as well. Further, research opportunities emanating from the gaps identified in the study in the article are also identified. Therefore, the review is structured as suggested by Lee (1995) and Lovejoy, Revenson and France (2011) such that it begins with a critical review of the article, followed by an investigation of three articles that have been referenced in the article, and a discussion about the gaps that have been identified in the literature.
Summary of the research article
With the quick progression of portable innovation, keen gadgets have tested the surviving exploration worried with time and space. In light of a client’s particular advantages, versatile entries permit snappy and simple get to anyplace, whenever to a universe of information, applications and administrations. While this gives an upgraded, progressive and customized client encounter, knowing how fulfilled clients are with their versatile entrance is significant to understanding clients’ needs, recognizing vital elements that can be utilized to enhance existing versatile entries and improving Information Technology (IT)- related business esteem. The review develops explore information about client fulfillment to the setting of versatile entryways. Besides it contributes information in regards to post-appropriation versatile gateway client fulfillment. Thirdly, the examination contributes another dependable and legitimate instrument to gauge client fulfillment with versatile
entries – a commitment to the IS research stream worried with estimation.
This article reports on a research that focused on the measurement of the satisfaction of users of mobile portals, which is a relatively new development in the area of information systems, albeit using a snapshot approach. Therefore, the research question was how to measure user satisfaction of mobile portal users. By leveraging the existing measurement instruments used to determine user satisfaction with application of conventional information and communication technologies, the authors of the article have managed to customize these instruments for use in the mobile portal context and even developed a valid and reliable instrument that can satisfactorily measure the satisfaction of mobile portal users called iMPUS. To arrive to these developments, a qualitative study employing focus groups and questionnaires have been employed and the data subjected to rigorous statistical analysis to test the validity and reliability of the measuring instrument that the authors have developed. The sampled population who were engaged as participants of the study comprised of experts, researchers and active users of mobile devises and portals. In addition, a total of 254 participants participated in the exploratory study while 377 participants were engaged in the confirmatory study although 249 and 375 responses respectively were used for analysis. These participants provided vital data that helped develop valuable insights regarding mobile portals and the measurement of user satisfaction. The dominant theories and paradigms used to explain this research included the technology acceptance model to accept acceptance of mobile portals, theory of reasoned reaction to explain what influenced people to use mobile portals and the associated behaviors, and innovation diffusion theory to explain the factors that may have influenced the acceptance of mobile portals by users (Chau & Hu 2002, p. 192; Kourouthanassis 2014, p. 209; Serenko & Bontis 2004, p. 90).
The study revealed major findings including acceptable definitions of mobile portals and user satisfaction with mobile portals, which helps construct domains and dimensions under which, the reliability and validity of iMPUS could be tested. Indeed, the novelty of this research is that it came up with eight dimensions that underwent rigorous statistical analysis to reveal that iMPUS had sufficient reliability and validity to measure the satisfaction of mobile portal users. In the end, the study was found to have contributed to the knowledge of measurement instruments in information systems that were in tandem with the technological advancements in this field and particularly mobile portals.
General Overall Review and a List of Comments
The article fills its need, which is giving an account of the advancement of appreciation of what client fulfillment is about with particular see to versatile entry utilization and also the improvement substantial and solid instrument for measuring versatile gateway client fulfillment. By utilizing the current learning in regards to the traditional comprehension of client fulfillment and the surviving client fulfillment estimation instruments in data frameworks, the review has expanded on this to steadily deliver a conceivable system that supports the elements and functionalities of the instrument for measuring versatile entry client fulfillment. The main doubt of the review would be the set number of members considering that portable innovation is inescapable and in this way saturates all divisions of human stratification, which ought to be reflected in the expansiveness of the assorted qualities and immensity of quantities of members. At the point when this is joined by the depiction approach utilized in the exploration system, the speculation of the finding is tested by member choice and the predispositions it acquaints with the review. Regardless, the creators effectively recognize and caution about this constraint, which makes guided open door for further review in the region of versatile gateway client fulfillment estimation. To illustrate this, attention is called to the opening comments of research design and methods, which outline clearly the four-stage process of developing a measurement instrument (Seng, Wilkin & Sugianto 2012, p. 1785). In addition, the opening comments in the discussion section rightly states that the eight dimensions that have been developed in the measurement of user satisfaction of mobile portals have been an extension of research in the area of user satisfaction in information systems. However, Seng, Wilkin and Sugianto (2012, p. 1792) caution about the lack of external validity due to limited participation by users of mobile devises, which in turn could compromise the generalization of the research findings in the contemporary environment.
This article can be viewed as a noteworthy resource since it shows another approach to measuring client fulfillment, especially for customers of mobile portals. In turn, measurement of mobile portal user satisfaction raises a variety of interesting issues such as dealing in the area of mobile portals, which is in its nascent stages of the advancements in internet-enabled information systems, employment of a wide array of statistical tests for evaluating the validity and reliability of the user satisfaction measurement tool, and the new knowledge that this study adds to measurement of user satisfaction. Therefore, the major strengths of this article are:
The article addresses a current and relevant subject in the field of information systems (IS). Considering that it was published a year ago, the article addresses a rapidly evolving area of computing, which in this case is mobile portals. Currently, the capabilities of mobile technologies are being expanded enormously and their applications are disrupting the existing knowledge and application of information and communication technologies, which has led to their wide and increasing adoption by the global population. Indeed, mobile technologies have enhanced the utility of the internet by increasing accessibility by providing low cost solutions that are affordable by the masses, easing the use of technology, shrinking the size of gadgets, widening social connectivity and even facilitating the execution of complex technological tasks. However, despite these enormous developments, the concept of user satisfaction when associated to mobile portals remains poorly understood. In addition, the lack of instruments that are capable of measuring and evaluating the satisfaction of users of mobile portals remains a challenge to the evaluation of the performance of mobile portals as perceived by its users.
The authors exhibited extensive application of statistical tests to evaluate the validity and reliability of the measurement tool aimed at evaluating the satisfaction of users of mobile portals. However, before the authors performed the battery of statistical tests, they engaged in a qualitative research that applied a rigorous research methodological approach that was based on measurement instrument development frameworks. Specifically, experts, researchers and active users of mobile devises and portals were engaged as participants of focus groups to facilitate the construction of the domain construct. The participants helped define the terms mobile portal and user satisfaction with mobile portals to facilitate the validation of the extant mobile portal user satisfaction (MPUS) construct (Seng, Wilkin & Sugianto 2012, p. 1785). Thereafter, a content validation process was undertaken, and arrived at 10 dimensions and 49 items that could be used to guide further research. After that, and an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed, in which 249 and 375 participants were involved respectively. The statistical test involved in the exploratory study included a principle component analysis, and the Cronbach’s coefficients (α). For the confirmatory study, the confirmatory the statistical tests included the goodness-fit index (GFI), the comparative fit index (CFI), the Tucker-Lewis index (TLI), the standardized root-mean-square residual index (SRMR) and the chi-square (c2) test. Reliability of the iMPUS instrument was tested using the mean inter-item correlation, the composite reliability scores and the Cronbach’s coefficient (α). Further, in order to verify the measuring instrument’s validity, the following tests were conducted ; discriminant, convergent, and nomological validity, and a performance for correlation and regression analyses was done on them.
The study builds on existing knowledge regarding user satisfaction measurement by comparing between the appropriateness and completeness of measuring instruments developed to measure the user satisfaction of information systems and the iMPUS tool, which is developed and customized for evaluation of user satisfaction of mobile portals. Indeed, new knowledge was added from the insights about user satisfaction regarding mobile portals, the new and different dimensions required to customize the user satisfaction measuring instrument to the mobile portal context. In addition, new knowledge about mobile portals and their application in mobile commerce, which had received limited research attention particularly in the study of mobile portal user satisfaction after the adoption of mobile technologies as advancements in information systems. Further, the study introduced the iMPUS, which was a rigorously develop instrument for measuring user satisfaction with acceptable statistical reliability and validity. This instrument would advance the application of user satisfaction measurements in the field of mobile portals, which is a relatively new development in information systems.
Additional References (1000)
Three additional articles that were referenced in the article under review were identified, and their summaries and relevance are highlighted in table 1. All of these were used in the section of the literature review of the article.. Although the three articles are related to the perception of users regarding different technologies associated with information systems, their differences in the times at which they were published provides insights about the advancements of different aspects of information systems over time. While two of them dwell on measurement if different aspects of computing technologies, the third, which is the latest of the three, focuses on adoption of mobile portals, a main and relevant subject in the article under review. After the tabulated summary, a detailed discussion of each of the articles is undertaken thereafter.
Table 1. Summary and account of relevance of three articles found as references in the article under review
Full article reference
Short account of relevance
Doll, WJ & Torkzadeh, G 1988, ‘The measurement of end-user computing satisfaction’, MIS quarterly, pp. 259-274.
The article compares between two environments in the information system arena, namely traditional and end-user computing environments. It also reports on an instrument that has been developed to measure user satisfaction as people interact with applications in computers. A 12-item instrument able to measure five components of satisfaction of end users is presented while its reliability and validity are assessed as well.
This article is relevant because it presents a pertinent background regarding end-user satisfaction measurement instruments for the computing environment. Specifically, a factor analysis was employed by the researchers to make an appraisal of the reliability and validity of the given instrument, this approach has been used in the article. overall, the article advances the development of standardized instrument for measuring end-user satisfaction.
Gao, S, Krogstie, J & Siau, K 2011, ‘Developing an instrument to measure the adoption of mobile services’, Mobile Information Systems, vol. 7, no. 1, page. 45-67.
The article focuses on an instrument that has been developed to measure user adoption of mobile services. A perception survey instrument is developed and tested on 25 users of a mobile service, yielding a 22-iten instrument eventually. The reliabilities of this instrument was found to surpass the acceptance level that was targeted.
The relevance of this article is premised on its focus on mobile services, in which mobile portals are constituent. Considering that mobile portals are an avenue of delivery of mobile services, understanding what influenced adoption of mobile services by users provides a pertinent insight into what users find useful and satisfying as well. therefore, the article provides pertinent background information that can help decipher what would contribute to the satisfaction of a user of mobile portals.
Serenko, A & Bontis, N 2004, ‘A model of user adoption of mobile portals’, Quarterly journal of electronic commerce, vol. 4, no. 1, pp.69-98.
Although the article by Doll and Torkzadeh (1988) is not recent, it is illustrative that the pursuit of instruments to measure user satisfaction has been ongoing for a long time, with gradual progress being realized over time. The end-user computing (EUC) environment was the attractant to Doll and Torkzadeh, which interested their research attention, considering that it was regarded as the fastest growing industry experiencing a rapid adoption of computers in the individual and corporate spheres. The objectives of the study were to first, define end-user computing satisfaction and develop a measuring instrument that can measure end user satisfaction reliably and validly. To this end, the researchers engaged in a measurement instrument development process and came up with one with 40 items, eventually reduced to 12 items that were based on a five point Likert scale. Additionally, a questionnaire to give guidance to a structured interview was made or developed. This instrument aimed at interrogating the level of satisfaction of users with computer applications, and the aspects of the application that were most satisfying and those that were dissatisfying as well. Thereafter, the researchers engaged in a survey with 618 participants drawn from different industries and managerial levels therein. The data obtained was subjected to an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) which is similar to that employed in the article under review. However, only five factors were interrogated, including content, accuracy, format, ease of use and timeliness. The instrument was also subjected to discriminant and convergent validity analyses and correlations obtained. In addition, it was subjected to reliability tests and Cronbach values obtained. The researchers concluded that their instrument had adequate validity and reliability and thus a major step forward towards the development of a standardized instrument for measuring user satisfaction in the computing industry. The relevance of this article to the review is thus evidenced by the research objectives and methodology, which are similar to those used in the article under review, albeit focusing on user satisfaction with computer applications instead.
The article by Gao, Krogstie and Siau (2011) is a fairly recent article that elucidated how users of mobile services have had their needs satisfied by technological development in mobile technologies. Indeed, the article is cognizant that although mobile technologies are undergoing rapid development, new mobile services were experiencing slow acceptance by users. Therefore, the article added on to existing research, which was focused mainly on measurements of behavior and intension to use on mobile services by users. As per the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the Mobile Services Acceptance Model (MSAM), Gao, Krogstie and Siau (2011) have engaged in development of refinement and construct to come up with a survey instrument which is able to measure the adoption of user of mobile services. After piloting the instrument on 25 respondents drawn from a diverse university student population that not only owned a mobile device but had also had prior encounter with mobile services. Correlation tests were done on the data. Cronbach’s alpha (α) coefficients was also carried out on the data which was determined in the analysis procedure of quantitative data. After the instrument was tested on the sampled respondents, it was found to have validity and reliability that exceeded the expectations of the researchers. The relevance of this article is premised on its focus on mobile services and thus provides valuable insights to mobile portals, which are employed to render mobile services to users. In addition, the measurement of adoption levels is closely related to measurement of user satisfaction with mobile portals, which is the focus of the article under review.
Serenko and Bontis (2004) provide an article that is most related to the article in review, because their article focuses on mobile portals. It serves as a precursor for investigation of user satisfaction with mobile portals because it dwells on the area of user adoption of mobile portals. Specifically, the authors of this article first engage in defining and identifying the unique characteristics of mobile portals by combining different perceptions from literature. The authors also employ the technology acceptance model (TAM) it inform on behavioral aspects of users of technology and the perceptions emanating from such use. Specifically, the aspects of behaviours which are considered include the perceived usefulness and the intension of use of the mobile portals, broken down to the key construct to include perceived ease of use, perceived trust, expressiveness, value and usefulness. Consequently, the authors come up with an instrument that can be used to gauge the adoption of mobile portals and go further to suggest the kind of data that would be collected and the analysis to which it should be subjected. The relevance of this article lies in the focus of mobile portals because it not only helps enhance its understanding through definitions, but also presents background information about mobile portals that are pertinent to the research reported in the article under review.
The literature review of the article under review appeared short, perhaps due to lack of articles addressing the area of research or excessive narrowing of the research area. Seven articles were reviewed. Their years of publication ranged from 1983 to 2011.
The writing did not audit thoroughly the idea of client fulfillment regardless of having distinguished the two crucial methodologies of its conceptualization and estimation. While the writing harped thoroughly on developmental scale and intelligent size of measuring fulfillment without explaining what client fulfillment involves. Without a doubt, a comprehension of the necessities and inclinations of clients of intrigue could encourage a comprehension of client fulfillment. In this respect, the review excluded a discussion on what mobile portal users considered important to them and rather concentrated on how users reacted to certain aspects of mobile portals instead. Studies such as those undertaken by Alshibly (2015) and Heo, Song and Seol (2013) would have provided valuable insights on how quality of data and quality of service are pertinent components of what users consider as valuable and are thus reflective of the needs of the users. In addition, while adoption of technology reflects on its ability to satisfy the needs of users, what has influenced adoption of mobile portals was not discussed neither was the barriers that have hindered adoption of mobile portals. The lack of review of user needs and the manner in which they have changed over time denied the research article a firm basis on which measurement of user satisfaction could be based. In addition, an exploration of customer characteristics such as that provided by Anderson, Pearo and Widener (2008) would have added to the understanding of how customer demographics (age, gender and income) and situational characteristics (type of service and user experience) influence user satisfaction.
This revealed another gap in literature regarding the choice of instrument or methodology of measuring user satisfaction. Indeed, the article under review did not pay much attention to the plethora of methodological approaches and instrumentations that exist that are employed in the measurement of user satisfaction. article such as that by Roy and Bouchard (1999), and by Osborne and Costello (2009) would have provided valuable insights in this area and would thus have expanded the choice of methodological approaches of measuring user satisfaction from which the researchers of the article under review would have made. In addition, the articles by Beavers and colleagues (2013), DiStefano, Zhu and Mindrila (2009), Kim and colleagues (2016), Schmitt (2011), and Tojib, Sugianto and Sendjaya (2008) would have provided valuable insights on the execution of factor analyses, because they highlighted on the strengths and considerations of different methodological approaches. Indeed, these articles particularly explored the exploratory factor analysis and the confirmatory factor analysis, which have been employed in the article under review.
Another gap was in the area of theoretical frameworks. Theoretical frameworks underpinning the research were not reviewed even when the clearly provide a premise on which a research is founded. Research on adoption of new technologies and the theoretical frameworks that explain adoptability of a new technology exists. A treatment of the theoretical foundations applied in the research under review would have provided an understanding of the theories on which this research was grounded. An article such as that by Hill and Troshani (2010) provides an exploration of theories that explain the underpinnings behind customer satisfaction and the value customers attach to different technologies and their utility.
The article utilized a preview approach joined by a little and homogeneous example estimate, which may have restricted the outer legitimacy of the estimation instrument. Be that as it may, the suitability of the depiction approach was not investigated. In such manner, an exchange of the ideas gave by Isik, Jones and Sidorova (2011) in regards to the depiction approach would have improved the audit of writing in the article under survey.
From the distinguished crevices in writing that were recognized in the article under survey, various research openings ended up plainly evident. In particular, there was requirement for future looks into to explore how client fulfillment of versatile gateways was affected by the sex, age, instructive level and social financial status of clients. Moreover, future explores could connect with bigger specimens of members to enhance in the outer legitimacy, which thus, would empower the speculation of research discoveries. From this perspective, suggested research questions for future studies would be a) ‘how do user characteristics influence user satisfaction with mobile portals?’ and b) ‘how does experience with information technology influence the satisfaction of mobile portal users?’
An extensive review of the article by Daisy Seng, Ly Fie Sugianto and Carla Wilkin, published in 2016 was undertaken. In the review, the development of iMPUS as a satisfaction measurement instrument was found commendable because it addresses an area that had not received sufficient research attention, that of mobile portals. While the instrument was found to have acceptable reliability and validity, the researchers did not explore user satisfaction and other related concepts adequately, neither did they provide a theoretical foundation of their study. However, despite these shortcomings in the article, the review revealed that the factor analysis performed of the findings of the exploratory and confirmatory studies were in tandem with good research practice concerning measurement instrument development and factor analyses. In addition, the gaps in literature identified in the article paved way to the discernment of future researches particularly in the area of the influence of customer demographics and their characteristics on mobile portal user satisfaction.
Alshibly, HH 2015, ‘Customer perceived value in social commerce: An exploration of its antecedents and consequences’, Journal of Management Research, vol. 7, no. 1, pp.17-37.
Anderson, S, Pearo, LK & Widener, SK 2008, ‘Drivers of service satisfaction: linking customer satisfaction to the service concept and customer characteristics’, Journal of Service Research, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 365-381.
Beavers, AS, Lounsbury, JW, Richards, JK, Huck, SW, Skolits, GJ & Esquivel, SL 2013, ‘Practical considerations for using exploratory factor analysis in educational research’, Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, vol. 18, no. 6, pp.1-13.
Chau, PYK., & Hu, P. 2002. ‘Examining a Model of Information Technology Acceptance by Individual Professionals: An Exploratory Study’, Journal of Management Information Systems, vol. 18, no. 4, pp 191-229.
DiStefano, C, Zhu, M & Mindrila, D 2009, ‘Understanding and using factor scores: Considerations for the applied researcher’, Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, vol. 14, no. 20, pp.1-11.
Doll, WJ & Torkzadeh, G 1988, ‘The measurement of end-user computing satisfaction’, MIS quarterly, pp. 259-274.
Gao, S, Krogstie, J & Siau, K 2011, ‘Developing an instrument to measure the adoption of mobile services’, Mobile Information Systems, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 45-67.
Heo, M, Song, JS & Seol, MW 2013, ‘User Needs of Digital Service Web Portals: A Case Study’, The Journal of Educational Research, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 469-477.
Hill, S & Troshani, I 2010, ‘Factors Influencing the Adoption of Personalisation Mobile Services: Empirical Evidence from Young Australians,’ International Journal of Mobile Communications, vol. 8, no. 2, pp 150-168.
Isik, O, Jones, MC & Sidorova, A 2011, ‘Business intelligence (BI) success and the role of BI capabilities. Intelligent systems in accounting, finance and management, vol. 18, no. 4, pp.161-176.
Kim, H, Ku, B, Kim, JY, Park, YJ & Park, YB, 2016, ‘Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis for Validating the Phlegm Pattern Questionnaire for Healthy Subjects’, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, pp 1-8.
Kourouthanassis, PE 2014. ‘Adoption Behaviour Differences for Mobile Data Services: M-Internet vs. M-Portals’, International Journal of Mobile Communications, vol. 12, no. 3, pp 207-228.
Lee, AS 1995, ‘Reviewing a manuscript for publication’, Journal of Operations Management, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 87-92.
Lovejoy, TI, Revenson, TA & France, CR 2011, ‘Reviewing manuscripts for peer-review journals: A primer for novice and seasoned reviewers’, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 42, no. 1, pp.1-13.
Osborne, JW & Costello, AB 2009, ‘Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis’, Pan-Pacific Management Review, vol. 12, no. 2, pp.131-146.
Roy, MC & Bouchard, L 1999, ‘Developing and evaluating methods for user satisfaction measurement in practice’, Journal of Information Technology Management, vol. 10, no. 3-4, pp.49-58.
Schmitt, TA 2011, ‘Current methodological considerations in exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis’, Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, vol. 29, no. 4, pp.304-321.
Seng, D, Wilkin, C & Sugianto, LF 2012, ‘Factors Influencing Satisfaction with Mobile Portals’, In Wireless Technologies: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications (pp. 1782-1798). IGI Global.
Serenko, A, & Bontis, N 2004. ‘A Model of User Adoption of Mobile Portals’, Quarterly Journal of Electronic Commerce, vol. 4, no. 1, pp 69-98.
Tojib, DR, Sugianto, LF & Sendjaya, S 2008, ‘User satisfaction with business-to-employee portals: conceptualization and scale development’, European Journal of Information Systems, vol. 17, no. 6, pp.649-667.
Date of research activity
Full description of activity/
References/ resources visited
Reflection related to the activity
Seng, Wilkin & Sugianto 2012
It took a while to absorb the content. It enhanced my critical reading skills
Rereading article, highlighting and making notes
Seng, Wilkin & Sugianto 2012
Improved my critical reading skills
Writing report outline and main points
Improved my analytical skills
Seng, Wilkin & Sugianto 2012,
Google scholar, EBSCO host
Improved my internet browsing skills
Reading references and making notes
References in Seng, Wilkin & Sugianto 2012
It was tiring and involving. It helped make me a fast reader
Report writing (final copy)
Time consuming. It helped enhance my report writing skills and proof reading skills
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