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How could the adoption of Corporate Social Responsibility help in the achievement of Business Sustainability?
A case study of Nike

Chapter 1: Introduction
Research Background
Increasingly, firm’s role is not purely offering the goods and services needed by consumer and does not create a sustainable strategy for the firm itself. Their role has extended on accountability and responsibility during the conduct of the value creation and value chain building process. Consumer’s perception on values is not wholly-on the tangible benefits, but the intangible benefits derived from the goods and services consumption, such as the positive emotion obtained from purchasing from firm that conduct ethical business practices and at such devote themselves to be a highly social responsible company. Corporate social responsibility is a term used by as the effort to build value bundle to enhance its image in the consumer’s, stakeholders, employees, and the community mindset. The rationale for the research of the topic ”How can the adoption of Corporate Social Responsibility help in the achievement of Business Sustainability” is that although there are many evident clearly shown the increasing adoption of the corporate social responsibility practice in today’s business environment, however not many of the business believes that corporate social responsibility could help in the achievement of business sustainability. Corporate social responsibility practice is believed to be use for only building a good brand image and good reputation for the business. Hence, the main purpose of this study is to find the direct correlation between corporate social responsibility and business sustainability, in order to convince whether or not corporations should adopt corporate social responsibility to achieve its sustainable business growth and why is it necessary for a business to practice corporate social responsibility. A case study of Nike will be used in this research to exploit the issue.
Project aim
The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between corporate social responsibility and business sustainability at Nike.
Research objective:
–    to explore business sustainability)
–    to review the literature related to corporate social responsibility and established its relationship to business sustainability)
–    to examine the relationship between corporate social responsibility and business sustainability of Nike
–    to provide recommendation that companies can use in order to improve the corporate social responsibility
Research question:
–       What have Nike done to promote its corporate social responsibility?
–      What are the factors that could contribute to Nike’s business sustainability?
–     In what ways, does Nike’s corporate social responsibility contribute towards its business sustainability?
–     Why should Nike keep investing to improve its corporate social responsibility? Which strategy shall be adopted to improve Nike’s corporate social responsibility?
Research methodology:
All research will be collect through secondary method only. No primary research will be collected.
Chapter 2: Literature review
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) also termed to as responsible business, sustainable, responsible business, or corporate citizenship encompasses a corporate self-regulation incorporated in a business model to ensure that the business runs as per the set regulations and strives to create a positive change in the society (Aguinis and Glavas, 2012). CSR is common in a society where the society and the business are interrelated. As such, the business has distinct roles to play in the society. Therefore, a corporate socially responsible business will engage in activities that aim at maximally on making profits for the shareholders and involves in charity partaking and social foundations. CSR came into light when several multinational enterprises (MNEs) were formed and brought the need for a force that would push the corporate governance mechanisms to incorporate transparency and fairness in companies’ corporate activities (Jo and Harjoto, 2012). Jo and Harjoto (2012) opine that Corporate Social Responsibility entails giving back to the society, creating a sustainable livelihood for the people in the society, and representing a philanthropic model in the community. Therefore, CSR is about the business encompassing the ethical, legal, and economic expectations that the society has towards the organization. Moreover, CSR is built under the concept of adhering to international norms, ethical standards, and supporting the law (Aguinis and Glavas, 2012; Hopkins, 2012). As a distinct theory that explains how the corporations interact with the society that it is established in, CSR has several obligations that it is expected to play. Aguinis et al. (2012) suggest that these obligations include philanthropic responsibility, ethical responsibility, economic responsibility, and legal responsibility.
Business Sustainability
Most multinational businesses have thrived for a long time due to the techniques applied by managers in the new competitive market. With high competition and changes in the economy, politics, social composition, technology, and other factors affecting businesses from within and outside the organization, business sustainability has remained a major challenge for most businesses today (Frias-Aceituno, Rodríguez-Ariza and Garcia-Sánchez 2012). Business sustainability entails the idea of achieving long-term goals without interfering with the current objectives (Bansal and DesJardine 2014). However, different corporations have various methods of ensuring business sustainability as well as the accomplishment of the aims of the stakeholders of a company. Bansal and DesJardine (2014) define business sustainability as the creation of a long-term value since the managers focuses on measures that would obtain current goals as well as the future and planned objectives. Similarly, the authors argue that sustainability does not compromise the ability of the business to achieve their objectives in the future (Bansal and DesJardine 2014). The current techniques and goals should not make the future generations fail to achieve their objectives; thus, ensuring business sustains the current business waves and the forecasted obstacles.
Business Strategy and Corporate Social Responsibility
According to McWilliams (2015), corporate Social Responsibility is a method that organizations employs in an effort of associating a community in development projects purposely for enhancing the interaction between the company and the neighboring community. Most projects enhance the objective of a company, which is precisely beyond profit maximization. A company that engages in Corporate Social Development has a unique way of winning the competitive market since most consumers would prefer a company that brings back to the community. McWilliams (2015) argues that the ancient objective of a company was to make profits as per the requirement of most stakeholders. However, recent studies (Gupta, Briscoe and Hambrick, 2016; Saeidi, et al., 2015; Trong Tuan, 2012) reveal the interaction of managers and the community as the government intervenes in an effort of increasing positive impact from a company in the community development.
Business sustainability and the corporal social responsibility have a relation since different authors and scholars have suggested several incidences that intertwine the two modules. D’Amato, Henderson, and Florence (2009) suggest that corporal social development involvement in a community would help the business attain a forecasted sustainability since the firm would have important objectives towards the obvious consumers around the community. Similarly, the government intervenes to ensure the company has a positive impact towards the community as well as meeting the primary objective of wealth creation to the stakeholders and increasing revenues towards the state (Linnenluecke and Griffiths, 2013).
How to Promote Corporal Social Responsibility
Business involvement in CSR is a social responsibility brought up by the ideas of many individuals with the power to decide what to do in a community. For instance, Gupta, Briscoe and Hambrick, (2016) argue that the size and reputation of a company determine the involvement towards a community. A big company would have the attention of many individuals including the government and the community in helping the community attaining environmental goals. Similarly, Gupta, et al. (2016) explain the possible reasons that promote the intervention of a company in a CSR system. They argue that the decisions of the top officials of the company have the final rule to deciding on whether to get involved with the CSR or not.
According to Wu et al., (2014), the involvement of a company in the development of CSR is a way of achieving many goals associated with the sustainability of the business. However, the best way to promote the company’s CSR is to define the role of the company in the community and the possible ethical measures that would see the development of the community in a positive way. Wu et al., (2014) describe the importance of ethical definition in relation to whether the involvement in CSR would ensure positive feedback towards the business as well as maintaining the sustainability development forecasted by the managers. Therefore, the study described the importance of identifying ethical leaders that helps in understanding the improvement of a company that leads to sustainable development (Wu et al., 2014).
An analysis conducted by Pless, Maak and Stahl, (2012) indicates the measures responsible for promoting the evaluation of an excellent CSR in a company. The authors argue that companies should train competent leaders who would understand the importance of implementing CSR in the business entity. However, Pless, Maak and Stahl (2012) recommend the idea of sending qualified managers to other developed countries in encouraging the learning of newly implemented ideas obtained from social responsibility from other competent companies. Similarly, the authors suggest the goals of every company suggesting the implementation of a criterion applied by Ulysses Company that aimed at promoting the implementation of CSR in their community as a way of protecting their goals of business sustainability. The study entails ideas suggesting that Ulysses Company aimed at sending their managerial trainees to other developed parts of the world to attain new tactics that would help the company achieve their goals and meet sustainable development. Similarly, the idea of obtaining lessons from foreign countries has helped the company in analyzing the effectiveness of CSR in bringing sustainable development in their country, thus, having positive impacts to the business entities.
Another study by Jones Christensen, Mackey and Whetten (2013) contemplates on the importance of leadership qualities in the implementation and promoting of CSR strategies at a given company. They suggest that a company has leaders and followers with a similar goal of sustaining their sustainability in the long-run. Thus, implementing a progressively achievable CSR would be the first step in winning the trust of the community. Additionally, Chabrak (2015) brings out the notion of promoting CSR with the implication of improving the integrity of the business. The idea of protecting the integrity works best when the company officials promote the workability of a company in an effort of retaining their goals of protecting the interests and nature of the business in the community (Chabrak, 2015). Therefore, the idea would promote CSR and at the end enjoy the fruits of business sustainability. .
Saeidi et al., (2015) explained the correlation between the implementation of CSR and the performance of a company. They emphasize on methods that lead to the promotion of CRS in a company that would see the development of the company. Customer satisfaction was the main objective in winning the competitiveness as discussed by the authors that has contributed to the financial performance with a better implementation of CSR. Therefore, Saeidi et al., (2015) suggest that a company aiming at promoting the implementation of CSR should focus on protecting the firm’s competitiveness ideology, protecting company’s reputation, and enhancing customers’ satisfaction. Additionally, Hopkins (2007) debated on the importance of implementing CSR as a way of enhancing the promotion of the goals of the company in enhancing business sustainability. Therefore, the topic analysis on the importance of promoting CSR and the performance of a company has an understanding that aims at protecting the company in a long-run.
Reasons for a Company for Improving CSR
The success of a company in the field of profit maximization and sustainability depends on the strategies employed to see the development of the company. However, managers and stakeholders opt to incorporate the implementation of CSR with the aim of improving their financial performance. Flammer (2015) argues that -moststudies in the early 20th century have discussed the incorporation of CSR and financial performance as a failure. The Flammer (2012) opposes the idea since recent articles articulate an improvement in company’s financial performance in association with CSR. Therefore, as discussed by Flammer (2015), a company should implement CSR with the aim of improving their financial performance. Similarly, Jiraporn et al. (2014) add a credibility Flammer’s study by suggestingthat incorporating CSR in a firm’s business strategy helps increaseits credibility. However, better CSR strategies must be employed to see an improvement in CSR policies. Jiraporn et al. (2014) suppose the importance of improving the employment of CSR in the system of a company to increase credit ratings as well as offering a concrete platform for investors. According to Jiraporn et al. (2014), the use of CSR is a way of secret advertising that helps consumers learns about the company and their products.
The purpose of a CSR strategy in a company is to ensure all the stakeholders are taken care of regardless of the primary purpose of financial prosperity. However, Servaes and Tamayo (2013) argue that every company has an aim of pleasing the stakeholders as well as maintaining a well-established financial development. A company with a well-organized CSR system would create awareness in response to the competitive environment, thus, allowing valuable stakeholders such as customers to have a clear awareness of the policies employed by the company through the employment of CSR. Additionally, CSR helps in branding a company as valuable towards the perspective of the community. Cheng, Ioannou, and Serafeim (2013) add that the implementation of a CSR strategy would increase chances of accessing financial support from lenders, investors, and other financial institutions. However, Garay and Font, (2012) discussed the importance of CSR in small enterprises that purposely covers small-scale businesses. Garay and Font(2012) suggest that the incorporation of CSR in small businesses would result in the development of the businesses that would ensure growth and profit maximization in the long-run. Therefore, the studies reveal the reasons behind the need for improving the incorporation of CSR in every business that would see the growth of a company.
Additionally, a company that aims at winning a competitive environment would utilize any available resource for the business to thrive. Therefore, the company would use the available strategy of implementing CSR as a way of creating awareness as well as competing with the similar businesses. Boulouta and Pitelis (2013) provide a platform that discusses the importance of CSR in a competitive environment. The primary focus of a business is to meet the demands of shareholders, but that could not help in the fight against competition. Therefore, Boulouta and Pitelis (2013) bring the argument of a business trying to comprehend meeting the expectations of the possible stakeholders mainly consumers. According to Boulouta and Pitelis (2013), a company that accomplishes the desires of stakeholders has a better place in competition compared to other businesses that focus of profit maximization. Similarly, Lund-Thomsen and Lindgreen (2013) append the importance of CSR in expanding the global value chains that help in the development of a business network. For instance, a company has the mandate to implement CSR in creating awareness to the public on what activities entails their types of products or services. Furthermore, a company has to take responsibilities of other people they do business with and, provide adequate care to the workers and the society. Therefore, as Hahn (2012) claims, CSR helps in accomplishing the urge for a company to draw a clear picture of their business thus, the need for improving the implementation of CSR.
Factors that Contribute to Business Sustainability
Business is said to be successful when the managers can sustain from the challenges facing the development. However, some factors affect the growth of business both positively and negatively against their goal of financial health. Gimenez and Tachizawa, (2012) conducted a literature review of the possible outcomes that ascertains the implementation of unique strategies to see the development of business. Gimenez and Tachizawa, (2012) argue that business sustainability derives motives from supply chain whereby, the managers aims at creating a solid relationship with suppliers and other business associates. The idea would ensure winning of the clients’ trust in the business, thus, minimizing the chances of competition, which might kill the dream of sustainability.
Additionally, a business has the mandate to take responsibility of a community in return take the sustainable development of the society in the form of profit maximization (Baumgartner, 2013). However, Baumgartner (2013) argues that any business could attain business sustainability, but not all enterprises could achieve corporal sustainability, which endeavors between a link of CSR and being sustainable. Sustainability is driven by the presence of CSR platform that levels-up the availability of unique strategies that helps the achievement of company’s goals and sustainability (Cohen et al., 2012).  Similarly, the tool for measuring an achievement of sustainability differs from people’s perspective. For instance, several enterprises have been using GDP as a tool for measuring the development of sustainability, thus, proving that the tool used in identifying the progress of business sustainability would react to any possible outcome (Pintér et al., 2012).
Moreover, technology development has recorded a significant contribution to the fact that sustainability and performance have taken the new waves in the business world. Carayannis, Sindakis and Walter (2014) argue that business sustainability is an outcome of business venture where managers and shareholders invest in technology as a way of sustaining from the current challenges. Similarly, Loorbach and Wijsman (2013) brings the idea of helping a business achieving sustainability from the lowest level but employing concepts that would see the expansion of a small business into a big corporate. Therefore, Loorbach and Wijsman (2013)  used several examples that would help a small enterprise achieve the desired level of sustainability to the extent of growing into a bigger company, thus, ensuring a factorized concept in sustainability. For instance, the authors suggest the use of organizational transitional approach rather than optimizing the existence of a company. Similarly, transitional approaches entail the use of an illustrated approach called “Roof Transition” that describes the importance of experimental and research approach that would help managers attain their desired sustainable development (Loorbach and Wijsman 2013).
The sustainable business focuses on social impacts towards the realization of their goals irrespective of the duration of their success. Slawinski and Bansal, (2015) argue that a business would focus on either long-term or short-term goals that would help to achieve their sustainable level. Slawinski and Bansal’s (2015) study helps in illustrating what oil companies take in handling the emission of Greenhouse gas that affects the community. The effect might lead to losing of consumers in response to affecting the environment; thus, a company should ensure protecting their image by respecting the nature as well as focusing in profit maximization.
Another study by Hahn et al. (2014) articulates the possible factors influencing corporal sustainability. The authors argue that a business manager would focus on social, environmental, and economic goals that would see the development of financial prosperity. However, the move should take in the idea of incorporating CSR into the business strategy hence, increasing the consumers’ trust, and financial obligation (Hahn et al., 2014). Besides, Law (2010) takes the reader through a process of understanding what entails a company in the process of delivering sustainability in the industry. Law (2010) illustrates using a high-tech company where sustainability is the major purpose considering the competitive world.
Similarly, Zink (2014) stresses the idea of human factors that contributes to company’s sustainability in an effort of focusing on their objectives. Zink (2014) names human factors as ergonomics that defines social sustainability. Therefore, the factor that conceptualizes sustainability must be followed by a show of willingness and resource allocation that would help the company attain the achievements of having a sustainable development, thus, answering what should be done to achieve a company’s objectives.
CSR Contributing to Sustainability
Sustainability has developed due to the availability of CSR platform where companies have analyzed the importance of incorporating the wills of the community and the government (Moon, 2007). The link between CSR and profit prosperity is becoming thinner day by day when managers and shareholders consider giving back to the community as a way of winning competition and advertisement. Lozano, Carpenter and Huisingh, (2015) argue that sustainable development has been fueled by the availability of CSR strategies and other development theories when the company focuses on long-term goals instead of short-term profit maximization. Similarly, Reverte (2011) stresses the idea of employing CSR in the development of a sustainable company. The author illustrates with U.S companies that have reported prosperity after enrolling to government environmental services; that is, helping the government in climate restoration. Another study by Aguinis and Glavas (2012) concentrated on the link between CSR and sustainability consists of literature reviews from different authors who tried to analyze CSR and other concepts. Aguinis and Glavas (2012) discussed the relationship between CSR and sustainability since most authors contemplated that the implementation of CSR system in a company leads to various results that include profit maximization, competitive advantage, the value of stakeholders, and marketing strength, among other benefits. Therefore, the review of (Aguinis and Glavas, 2012) discusses all the possible positive results brought by the use of CSR.
Recent studies have discussed the contribution of large entities into the degradation of climate (Wang and Sarkis, 2013). However, the need to clear the doubt, most companies involve in contributing towards the concepts of helping the world achieve a clean world. Therefore, Lozano (2013) discusses the correlation between CSR and the sustainable development where companies focus on helping the government and other NGOs in cleaning the world. In the process, managers find themselves in a cocoon where they have to help the environmental changes and lead to the accomplishment of a corporal sustainability (Hąbek and Wolniak, 2015). The similar analysis includes the study of Lozano (2012) that entails an analysis of company’s system that develops from implementing CSR system. For instance, the tourism sector has declared that they have the mandate to protect the environment since their business works best in places with cool and reliable climate, thus, the need to protect nature should be their priority that would see the industry make millions of profits (Coles, Fenclova and Dinan, 2013).
Flammer(2012) discussed a number of  companies that implement CSR and those that fail.. The results showed that business entities reported different results since many companies that contributed to environmental awareness increased their sales compared to others that neglected the CSR implementation, thus, making a decreased curve of profit maximization. Additionally, Rexhepi, Kurtishi and Bexheti, (2013) articulates the importance of CSR in realizing innovation as one of the best drivers of sustainability. Linnenluecke and Griffiths (2013) adds credibility to the discussion of sustainability as linked to CSR. The authors suggest that CSR is the primary contributor to sustainable development success when incorporated towards the social and environmental issues. Furthermore, Schaltegger, Freund and Hansen (2012) shos the importance of CSR in the development of company success, thus, proving the point of CSR as the instigator of development sustainability. Heikkurinen and Bonnedahl(2013) also argue that environment degradation is political. Thus, every large business entity should take part in restoring the climate, and that would help the business attain a successful sustainable development. Strand, Freeman and Hockerts (2014) also noted that CSR leads to the achievement of sustainability and they give an example of Scandinavia: a country that is well known for their sustainable development and a good implementation of CSR.
Models of Corporate Social Responsibility
Carroll’s CSR Pyramid
This framework argues on the reasons why organizations should meet the social responsibilities that they are expected to accomplish. According to Nalband and Kelabi (2014), this CSR concept is built on the basis that profitability is the priority of any business. Although the business exercises the CSR obligations, it should maximize the profits while being ethically responsible (Nalband and Kelabi 2014). The business should also comply with the regulations and laws of the society. Another feature of this framework is that the business should meet the ethical duties before considering the philanthropic options (Nalband and Kelabi 2014).
The four responsibilities of a business that are emphasized by Carroll’s CSR pyramid include; philanthropic, legal, economic and ethic. Under the economic perspective, Nalband and Kelabi (2014) highlight that the business is expected to be responsible while at the same time maximize profits. This is the only way for a business to thrive in the society for a long term while benefiting the community. Yelkikalan and Köse (2012) argue that being ethical means that the business should not only adhere to the laws, but also go beyond the laws in treating the society ethically. As such, the business is required to act both ethically and morally. Good ethical responsibility is reflected by how the business treats its employees and suppliers since these are the basic parties that the business interacts with (Yelkikalan and Köse, 2012). The framework emphasizes that the business should show responsibility in adhering to the rules and regulations of the society. Such rules and regulations should be adhered to when treating the employees and in ensuring the health and safety within the work place. Philanthropic reflects on the responsibility of the business in giving back to the society (Dusuki and Yusof, 2016). However, this responsibility is discretional but vital for creating a good rapport in the society.
The model emphasizes on the importance of profit in addition to the philanthropic responsibility. Moreover, according to Nalband and Kelabi (2014), it is easy to understand based on the few yet clear responsibilities developed from the model understanding. Nonetheless, this model gives simple messages; thus, it is not complicated. However, it may appear too simple for some people. Besides, some of the business are not always doing what they claim to emulate from this model. Additionally, based on Dusuki and Yusof (2016), ethics should be considered to be placed at the top of the model rather than the philanthropic responsibility.
Triple bottom line
Henriques and Richardson (2013), while arguing on whether the triple bottom line works or not, note that, the concept was established based on the argument that a business should prepare three separate bottom lines. The triple bottom line model developed by Elkington aims at advancing the objective of sustainability in a business. Such sustainability objectives are extended beyond the profitability aims to achieve the environmental and social objectives of the business. The elements that make up the triple line model are referred to as “profits, peoplem and planet” (Henriques and Richardson 2013).
The first bottom line is a measure of how the corporate has been socially responsible throughout its activities. According to Savitz (2012), the social bottom line is used in measuring the profits of the business in regards to the human capital and the business position in the society. Triple bottom line model emphasizes that the social bottom line can be increased of only the business has beneficial labor practices and is involved in the community development practices (Savitz, 2012). Moreover, a business that does not create a good rapport with the society that it is established in, both the employee and client base minimize. This model measures the sustainability of the business in regards to the human capital where the business is expected to create a desirable working environment to ensure maximum productivity of the employees (Savitz, 2012). Through this model, the business can measure its social impact hence serve as guideline for the progress of the business.
The second bottom line measures how the business has been environmentally responsible since its establishment. The environmental sustainability addressed by this model takes the view that the less influence the business has in the environment, the less the business can consume the natural resources (Willard, 2012). Through this, the business can stay for longer and be more successful. By controlling the environmental bottom line, the business should manage and report on the consumption of resources. As such, the waste and emissions should be reported. One of the benefits of sustainable business model as stated by Willard (2012) is that it reduces on waste and adheres on green policies. One of the disadvantages of this model is that based on the business size, the process can be difficult and time consuming.
An account of the profit and loss made is another bottom line addressed by this framework. Savitz (2012) has argued that this scenario is referred to as the economic sustainability, which gives a measure of how the business affects the economic environment. Strengthening the economy is one of the requirements of a business to thrive in future. Savitz (2012) asserts that by the utilization of this model, the business can expand based on the changes in economy since it helps the business understand the position in the economy based on the relationship of the business and the society and the contribution of the business to the economy. Typically, the triple bottom line concept aims at measuring the environmental, social, and financial performance of the corporation (Henriques, and Richardson, 2013).
Ackerman’s model
According to Garriga and Melé (2013), the Ackerman’s model explains that responsiveness should be the main goal of any social activity of business. Based on the model, responding to the social issues should undergo a systematic process, which begins with problem recognition. The managers of the business have to first understand the social problem faced and express a will to resolve the social problem. After that, it should be followed by a study of the issue and coming up with diverse ways of dealing with the issue and finally implement the decision. This is ensured through hiring of experts who give suggestions on how to run the operations. To maintain management discretion, the business managers should respond to the identified social issues early (Sharma and Kiran, 2013). There are six strategies, which are used in the adoption of the CSR. They include adversary strategy, rejection strategy, compliance strategy, proactive strategy and accommodation strategy. Garriga and Melé (2013) emphasize on the internal policy goals of an organization and the relationship of these policy goals to the CSR.
The literature review has widely exposed the relationship between the implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility and sustainable development study. Different authors have analyzed the topic discussing the importance of incorporating CSR for the benefit of improving the environmental and social development as well as attaining a reasonable sustainability. Sustainable development is attained by mixing specific strategies connected to CSR that helps the consumers believe in the company, thus, creating a platform for business competitive superiority. Various companies like Nike Incorporation have created a platform in the business world whereby they have established a platform that implements CSR, helping them achieve financial goals, as well as sustainability. Therefore, the literature review summarizes ideologies of `   different authors on the topic of correlating CSR that leads to business sustainability
Chapter 3: Research Methodology
Research Philosophy
There are many ways of defining the terms of philosophy, it is not that some are right and some are wrong, it’s just that the emphasis given leads to differing definitions. What we mean by philosophy is the critical analysis of the fundamental assumptions or beliefs held by an individual. (Saunders and Lewis 2012). Research philosophy  relates to the development of knowledge and the nature of that knowledge in relation to research. We may not know it, but different research philosophy contains important assumptions, in which we view the world. These assumptions will highlight the research strategy and the data collection methods we choose as part of the strategy. The main strands of research philosophy are Positivism, Realism, Interpretivism and Pragmatism.
Positivism is a research philosophy similar to those used in the physical and natural sciences. Highly structured methods are employed to facilitate replication, resulting in law-like generations. Positivist researcher’s main concern is to study observable and measurable variables in certain controllable conditions and to describe the reaction of these variables o treatment applied by the researcher. The emphasis is on predicting the outcomes of the research in order that these variables may be controlled in the future.The positivist research philosophy is the law of cause and effect, by applying treatment A to variable B will lead to result c, with A being the cause and C the effect. Therefore scientific method suggests that the principle of cause and effect means  that we can propose theories which we can test. As a result of the inquiry, we may find that the proposed theory is not confirmed by the findings. Consequently we need to revise our theory to better predict reality. In this case the positivist researcher may pursues a cycle of attempts at establishing cause and effect untill future events may be accurately predicted. (Saunders and Lewis 2012)
Interpretivism, also known as interpretivist involves researchers to interpret elements of the study, thus interpretivism integrates human interest into a study. Accordingly, “interpretive researchers assume that access to reality (given or socially constructed) is only through social constructions such as language, consciousness, shared meanings, and instruments”.
Pragmatism is a research philosophy that accepts concepts to be relevant only if they support action. Pragmatics “recognise that there are many different ways of interpreting the world and undertaking research, that no single point of view can ever give the entire picture and that there may be multiple realities
Realism is a research philosophy which stresses that objects exist independently of our knowledge of their existence. Like positivism, realism relates to scientific inquiry. The basis of realism is that what our senses show us as reality is the truth; therefore, objects have an existence independent of the human mind. Realism holds that there is a reality quite independent of the mind. The opposite of realism is idealism – the theory that only the mind and its contents exist. Let us make the nature of realism clearer by contrasting two forms of realism. The first type of realism is direct realism. Direct realism states t at what you see is what you get: that what we experience through our senses is m  accurate representation of the world. The second kind of realism is called critical realism. Critical realists argue that what we experience are sensations, the images of the things in the real world, not the things directly. Critical realism advocates
This research is using a critical realism philosophy since it examine the correlation, cause and effect of Nike’s company CSR activities and its business sustainability.
Research Approach
There are three main type of research approach, inductive, deductive and abductive research approach.
Inductive approach, also known in inductive reasoning, starts with the observations and theories are proposed towards the end of the research process as a result of observations.  Inductive research “involves the search for pattern from observation and the development of explanations – theories – for those patterns through series of hypotheses”. No theories or hypotheses would apply in inductive studies at the beginning of the research and the researcher is free in terms of altering the direction for the study after the research process had commenced.
Deduction approach is a research approach in which involves the testing of a theoretical proposition by using a research strategy designed to perform this test. The key characteristics of this approach is first to explain causal relationship between variables (Saunders & Lewis 2012).
Abductive approach is the research process starts with ‘surprising facts’ or ‘puzzles’ and the research process is devoted their explanation. ‘Surprising facts’ or ‘puzzles’ may emerge when a researcher’s encounters with an empirical phenomena that cannot be explained by the existing range of theories.
Inductive will be use in this research since through the examining of case study, journal articles, and company reports on CSR activities and the company performance, may give us a general conclusion whether or not CSR has an effect on the company’s sustainability.
Research Design
Qualitative research methods are interpretative and aim to provide a depth of understanding. Qualitative methods are based on words, perceptions, feelings etc. rather than numbers and they include experiments, interviews, focus groups, and questionnaires with open-ended questions (Monette et al, 2005, p.428).
Quantitative research methods describe and measure the level of occurrences on the basis of numbers and calculations. Moreover, the questions of “how many?” and “how often?” are often asked in quantitative studies. Quantitative research is defined by Bryman and Bell (2005, p. 154) that ‘entailing the collection of numerical data and exhibiting the view of relationship between theory and research as deductive, a predilection for natural science approach, and as having an objectivist conception of social reality’. So the this specific form of research uses the quantitative data to analysis.
This research will be using a Mix Methods, where both qualitative research and quantitative research are used since case study, journal article, company report and its financial report will be look and analyse.
Research method
There are mainly two sources of data namely primary and secondary data used by researchers in order to properly answer their questions and attain set research objectives.
Primary data refers to data that has not yet been processed and is still in its raw or original state. Such type of data is gathered through interviews, observations, field surveys or the administration of questionnaires. Secondary data on the other hand is one that is gathered from previous research works and has thus been processed or refined.
Secondary data can be usually collect quickly compared to primary data. The data are source materials that have been collect for the study. Secondary data is derived from sources like internet, online internet articles, journals and the most important source is from home website.
This research will only be using the secondary data only as Primary data required more time and resource. The data collected or gathered in this research will be generated from a broad range of internet based sources. This method of collection was preferred because it provided an easy access to a rich pool of previous research works.The journal article, case study on the corporate social responsibility activities of Nike, and Nike’s official website and financial report will be used to examine the relation and  analyse the effect of CSR on its company sustainability.

how could this research face the content validity
How can I tackle the problem

The validity and reliability of the research is based on the secondary data that distinguished by the researcher. In order to make sure this research is valid and reliable, a consultation with supervisor, tutors and personal research will be needed to get deeper insight into creating a relevance reasoning and conclusion. In addition, the data that will be used in this research should come from a reliable and confidential data source such as academic and official website with proper referencing.
There is no ethical issue since the information used in the research is subjective to the company publication and other media source. It is not subjective any specific individual thus no issue of confidentiality arise. Regarding the code of practice for ethical standards involving human participants (Saunders & Lewis 2012), this research does not require any participants as the main data sources are secondary data. However,
I will guarantee that there is no harm in anyway on collecting this research data and I will be honest with the results.


The study is based on secondary data which to an extend is limited in term of its reliability as some information published is written within the interest of certain party. The annual report to be used in the study also results in a degree of limitation since the non-financial information obtained from the report is written by the internal party and thus is bias. The financial information obtained is audited increasingly the reliability of the information reducing any materiality that could arise. The other limitation is the time constraint as this research will only be done within 7 months, it may not be possible to collect every relevance data.

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