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Effect of glyphosate applied to the soil on subsequent wheat growth
Experiment 1
From the experiments performed it was evident that glyphosate din the soil did not have any effects on wheat growth. Glyphosate is a herbicide utilized in the elimination of grasses, weeds and broadleaf plants. The sodium salt version of this herbicide has also found use in regulation of plant growth as well as in the ripening of fruits. It is a herbicide that was first registered in the U.S.A. in the early 1970s and it is still widely used up to today. The mechanism of action of glyphosate is through non selective activity of herbicides and this is an indication that it has potential to also kill the plants that are being protected from weeds if directly applied to them. It kills weeds and other plants through prevention of the synthesis of proteins that are extremely important for the plant growth through termination of enzyme activity of 5-enolpyruvylshilimate-3-phosphate synthase at specific pathways such as shikimic acid pathway. Glyphosate affects protein synthesis by prevetion of production of chorismate hence aromatic amino acids are not synthesized and proteins are abnormally formed. As mentioned glyphosate is non selective and can kill not just the weeds but also the beneficial plants. Glyphosate has been found to tightly bind to soil hence it will and does persist in the environment after being used in a farm for periods of up to 6 months depending on the soil as well as the climate such as cold and cloudy weather that delay the effects of glycosate on weeds. This soil is used both by the beneficial plants as well as the weeds as a source of nutrients hence glyphosate is likely to penetrate into plants that are utilized as food through the soil. Glyphosate has also been noted to be metabolized into different components in soil by bacteria. Though glyphosate persists in soil it is not likely to appear in ground water as it tightly binds to soil. Glyphosate present in leaves of weeds in farms will take a week and a few days to completely be broken down and utilized to destroy weeds. In studies it has been shown that glyphosate that spills on soil during the application to weeds has been taken up by plants such as carrots and lettuce.
The soils used in this study were clay and loam. As mentioned earlier glyphosate persistence in the environment is dependent on the type of soil that it is applied to. In this study there were no effects of glyphosate noted on the growth of wheat plant in both the clay and loam soil. This is an indication that wheat is not affected by the accumulation of glyphosate in soil unlike other plants such as soybeans.  In a study done in 1982, wheat plants were interplanted with glyphosate. When the glyphosate was applied to wheat nterplanted with soybeans it caused an increase in the fresh weight and height of soybeans. The more the glyphosate was applied to wheat in the presence of soybeans the more the soybeans grew. This experiment also showed that glyphosate that was exuded from the wheat plant to the soil when spraying on wheat plants was found in the leaves and stem of corn that was interplanted with the wheat. Hence, meaning that all plants are able to take up glyphosate exuded in soil during application to weeds.
According to this study glyphosate in soil had no effect on the ability of wheat seeds to germinate. The two types of wheat plants used were Hyperno and Gregory and though the Hyperno had more germination of seeds noted than Gregory the germination was not affected by presence of glyphosate. In the loam saoil the fertilizer added was more beneficial to the wheat plants than in the clay soil following the presence of glyphosate in these soils. Since seeds germinate into shoots and roots so that a plant can be formed it is not possible by the mechanism of action of glyphosate to hinder the germination of seeds as it works at hindering the proper formation of chlorophyll that is found in leave. Therefore, it did not affect the seedling germination.  Glyphosate persists more in different types of soils. In loam soil it does not persist for long but in soils that are more compact such as clay soil. The glyphosate persists in the environment binds tightly to sail and hence in compact soil it will tend to last longer.
Glyphosate is known to cause the inhibition of chlorophyll formation in plants and especially herbicides. It does this by inhibiting the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshilimate-3-phosphate synthase which prevents the formation of aromatic amino acids required in plants protein that form chlorophyll. In this experiment the glyphosate presence in the soil did not affect the chlorophyll content of the wheat plant. Glyphosate and fertilizer presence in clay soil promoted beneficial advantages on the plant than the glyphosate and fertilizer presence in loam soil.
Leaf count
Overall it was noted that the presence of glyphosate in soil did not affect he leaf count on the wheat plants. However, it was noted that the presence of glyphosate in soil was related with more leaves found on the Gregory cultivar than on the Hyperno cultivar. Glyphosate and fertilizer presence was noted to have increased leaf count in both cultivars.
Leaf length
The Gregory cultivator seemed to be more resistant to the effects of glyphosate on the wheat growth. This is seen in the leaf count whereby the Gregory cultivar showed no effects on its leaf count in the presence of glyphosate and also seen in the leaf length whereby the Gregory cultivar as compared to Hyperno had longer leaves. Fertilizer in the presence of glyphosate had a positive effect on the growth of wheat and caused an increased leaf length in both variants of wheat as compared to the presence of glyphosate without fertilizer. Overall the best leaf length recorded was in clay soil in the presence of fertilizer and with the Gregory variant of wheat, therefore indicating that Gregory wheat might be glyphosate resistant and that the effects of glyphosate on wheat can be overcome by use of the right fertilizer
When it came to the number of tiller required for each cultivar of wheat. The presence of glyphosate in soil did not affect the number of tillers required to till the land where the wheat would be planted.  The Gregory cultivar required more tillers than the Hyperno cultivar. Overall the loam soil was much easier to till and when mixed with fertilizer had much better results of wheat growth as compared to the Hyperno cultivar.
Shoot dry weight
The shoot dry weight was the same for both cultivars and was not affected by the variants of wheat. It was clear. However, that the fertilizer used whether in the presence of glyphosate or in its absence affected the dry weight of the shoot positively. This is seen with increased biomass of the shoot in cases where the fertilizer was used. Loam soil also gives much better dry weight of shoot as compared to clay soil.
Experiment 2
Seed emergence
In both the Gregory and Hyperno cultivars high rates of glyphosate interacted with the fertilizer and ended up causing significant effects on the seed emergence of this cultivars of wheat. Low rates of glyphosate did not have any significant effects on the emergence of seeds.
Number of roots
The number of roots was affected by the height of glyphosate. Number of roots with the recommended or low rate of glyphosate was not significant for both cultivars. It was noted that when glyphosate was placed in the presence of fertilizer it caused fewer numbers of roots to develop but when placed in the absence of fertilizer it did not negatively affect the number of roots. This is an indication that glyphosate could have reacted with the fertilizer to give of a product that affected the number of roots present on both the Hyperno and Gregory cultivars indicating that by products of reactions of herbicides and fertilizers can affect the growth of wheat.
Root length
Glyphosate treatment affects the length of roots and fertilizer and glyphosate interaction also causes significant variation in the growth of the different cultivars. Height rate and recommended rate of glyphosate affects the length of the root. The presence of fertilizer in the treatment with glyphosate led to increased plant damage. The same case had previously been noted in the case of the number of roots. It is clear that glyphosate treatment in combination with fertilizer leads to reduced root growth as well as numbers. The more the concentration of glyphosate the less the length of the root noted.
Shoot length
The length of the shoot is affected by interactions of glyphosate with the fertilizer. Higher concentration of glyphosate and fertilizer causes reduced growth of shoot length.  Plant damage is also seen in this case where shoot length is affected.
Experiment 3
Time to emergence
The regular dose of glyphosate when used did not affect the time of emergence of the wheat seeds. High rates of glyphosate when applied did have some significant effect on the time of emergence of wheat seeds and this is seen in a reduction in the time required for this emergence of wheat seeds. The number of seeds emerging was also significant affected by the presence of fertilizer. It was seen that fertilizer caused a reduction in the number of seeds emerging. In sand soils where there was higher accumulation of glyphosate it was noted that the number of seed emerging were fewer especially in the presence of fertilizer as well. It was noted that in sand soil the presence of glyphosate and fertilizer at the same time caused a serious reduction in the time of emergence as well as the number of seeds that actually emerged this is not however the case in loam and clay soil.
In sand soil the recommended rate of glyphosate did not affect the chlorophyll content of wheat plants but once the concentration of glyphosate was increased the chlorophyll content of wheat plants grown in sand soil reduced as compared to those grown in loam and clay soil. Increasing the fertilizer content in the presence of glyphosate also significantly reduced the wheat plants chlorophyll content. In this case Hyperno had more chlorophyll than the Gregory cultivar. In cases where there was high concentration of glyphosate in the sand soils but no presence of fertilizer the chlorophyll content was much better as compared to wen there was presence of fertilizer. This indicates that fertilizer affects the formation of chlorophyll in wheat plant grown in sand soil negatively.
Leaf count
In sand soil the amount of leaves was not affected by the recommended levels of glyphosate. Higher levels of glyphosate coused a reduction in leaf count but just like in the lam and clay soil the Gregory cultivar had more leaves on it than the Hyperno cultivar. Addition of fertilizer to this treatments made the number of leaves reduce even further especially in the presence of glyphosate. The same case is not noted when loam and clay soil are utilized since the glyphosate presence in this soils did not cause any effects on the leaf count.
Leaf length
The recommended levels of glyphosate in sand soil did not have any effect on leaf length. High levels of glyphosate in sand soil negatively affected leaf length as compared to the same in loam and clay soil. The cultivar and fertilizer also had their own secondary effects on the length of the leaves. This included the Hyperno cultivar having longer leaf lengths as compared to Gregory and fertilizer presence in the presence of glyphosate causing a further reduction in plant leaf length as compared to its absence in sand soil.
The recommended rate of glyphosate did not have negative effects on the tilling of wheat plant in sand soil. High rates of the herbicide did have significant effects on the tilling of the land in sand soils. The glyphosate had no effects on the loam and clay soil.
Number of plants surviving
Recommended glyphosate levels did not have any significant effects on the number of wheat plants that survived. High concentrations of glyphosate did cause a significant effect on the number of surviving plants fertilizer with high rates of glyphosate led to fewer surviving plants as compared to when the fertilizer was not present in san soil. The presence of fertilizer and glyphosate was not significant in affecting the number of surviving plants in lam and clay soil.
Shoot dry weight
The dry weight of shoot in the presence of glyphosate in sand soil was affected in a negative way. This was not the case in loam and clay soil. When fertilizer was added to glyphosate in sand soil it caused a decrease in the dry weight of the shoot hence indicating the same findings as for most of the other parameters studied for glyphosate in sand soil it indicates that sand soils are not the best for the growth of wheat if they have glyphosate accumulation.
Root dry weight
The root dry weight in sand soils with glyphosate accumulation indicate the same results as seen for the shoot dry weight. High glyphosate levels in the presence of fertilizer cuse a significant reduction in the root dry weight of wheat plants

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